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The intensive care unit (ICU) environment is often perceived to be hostile and frightening by patients due to unfamiliar surroundings coupled with presence of numerous personnel, monitors and other equipments as well as a loss of perception of time. Mechanical ventilation and multiple painful procedures that often need to be carried out in these critically(More)
OBJECTIVES The incidence of endotracheal tube (ETT) malposition in children with various described methods is 15% to 30%. Chest x-ray (CXR) is the gold standard for confirming appropriate ETT position. The aim of this study was to measure the accuracy of a preoperative CXR-based method in determining depth of insertion of ETTs and to compare it with methods(More)
BACKGROUND Mannitol increases intravascular volume by withdrawing water from the brain and causes significant changes in stroke volume, cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular resistance, central venous pressure (CVP), and blood pressure. No previous studies have demonstrated changes in left ventricular (LV) preload, afterload, and CO using transesophageal(More)
BACKGROUND In patients undergoing craniotomy, skull pin insertion produces significant increases in heart rate (HR) and blood pressure. We investigated whether premedication with gabapentin would prevent or attenuate this increase. METHODS Forty-seven ASA I and II patients, 18 to 60 years, undergoing elective craniotomy for intracranial tumor surgery were(More)
BACKGROUND In patients undergoing craniotomy, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is 55% to 70% and that of moderate to severe postoperative pain is 60% to 84%. We hypothesized that gabapentin plus dexamethasone would be superior, compared with placebo and dexamethasone in reducing the incidences of PONV and pain after craniotomy. (More)
BACKGROUND Scalp infiltration with epinephrine-lidocaine solution in patients undergoing neurosurgery may result in transient but significant hypotension. We investigated whether premedication with alpha2-adrenoreceptor agonist clonidine, which also exhibits alpha1-adrenoreceptor mediated vasoconstriction, would prevent or attenuate this fall in mean(More)