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We generated vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 "knock-in" mice and Cre recombinase transgenic mice to delete the VCAM-1 gene (vcam-1) in whole mice, thereby overcoming the embryonic lethality seen with conventional vcam-1-deficient mice. vcam-1 knock-in mice expressed normal levels of VCAM-1 but showed loss of VCAM-1 on endothelial and hematopoietic(More)
kappa-opioid receptor agonists (kappa-ORAs) have been shown to modulate visceral nociception through an interaction with a peripheral, possibly novel, kappa-opioid-like receptor. We used in the present experiments an antisense strategy to further explore the hypothesis that kappa-ORA effects in the colon are produced at a site different from the cloned(More)
The goal of the present study was to determine whether the kappa-opioid receptor agonist (ORA) U50,488 attenuates behavioral and primary afferent nerve responses to noxious colorectal distension (CRD) by sodium channel blockade. We tested the analgesic kappa-ORA (+/-)-trans U50,488, its enantiomers (-)-trans (1S,2S)-U50,488 and non kappa-ORA (+)-trans(More)
We have previously reported that U50,488 [(trans-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl]benzeneacetamide] enantiomers contribute to visceral antinociception by a nonopioid receptor-mediated blockade of sodium currents in colon sensory neurons. The present experiments were undertaken to examine the effect of arylacetamide kappa-opioid(More)
The ability of arylacetamide kappa-opioid receptor agonists (kappa-ORAs) to block sodium channels by a nonopioid mechanism has been previously documented. The present experiments were undertaken to test whether two enantiomers of the arylacetamide kappa-ORA (trans)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl]benzeneacetamide (U50,488),(More)
The problem of spectrum sharing between two operators in a dynamic network is considered. We allow both operators to share (a fraction of) their licensed spectrum band with each other by forming a common spectrum band. The objective is to maximize the gain in profits of both operators by sharing their licensed spectrum bands rather than using them(More)
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