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A one-step non-radioactive assay to determine the proliferation of murine lymphocytes, lymphoid tumor cells and hybridoma cells is described. This assay requires the addition of Alamar Blue dye to cell cultures and the degree of change in its color, which is reflective of the extent of cellular proliferation, can be determined by an ELISA plate reader.(More)
Alamar Blue in the microenvironment of activated cells, undergoes color change and also becomes fluorescent. By using the Alamar Blue dye, we have reported a non-radioactive colorimetric assay to indirectly determine proliferation of murine lymphocytes. We further show that the pattern of mitogen-induced proliferation assessed fluorometrically was(More)
It is now well known that natural (17beta-estradiol) and synthetic (e.g. diethylstilbestrol) estrogens not only affect the reproductive system, but also markedly influence the immune system. Recently, a new class of estrogens that is abundant in the environment (in industrial chemicals, pesticides, and surfactants) has been recognized. Some of these(More)
It is believed, but not proven, that the immunomodulatory effects of DES may vary with the dose and/or gender. To address these critical gaps in the literature, diethylstilbestrol (DES) was administered to female and male CD-1 mice as four subcutaneous injections for 1 week at 0, 5, 15, and 30 microg/kg bw doses, and immunological and reproductive effects(More)
In utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) may have long-term immunological alterations after birth. It is hypothesized that in utero exposure to DES may pre-program the thymus to result in aberrant response to a subsequent adult exposure to an endocrine disrupting chemical. Pregnant mice at 14-days gestation were given either DES (0.25 microg;(More)
Methods of lymphocyte enrichment tend to vary across species, with the most common techniques employed being density-gradient separation and erythrocyte lysis buffer enrichment. In this study, we assessed lymphocyte viability and proliferation of avian, equine, and murine lymphocytes enriched by a commercial density-gradient technique and under identical,(More)
Nitric oxide plays a central role in the physiology and pathology of diverse tissues including the immune system. It is clear that the levels of nitric oxide must be carefully regulated to maintain homeostasis. Appropriate levels of nitric oxide derived from iNOS assist in mounting an effective defense against invading microbes. Conversely, inability to(More)
Arsenic is a recognized reproductive toxicant in humans and induces malformations, especially neural tube defects, in laboratory animals. Early studies showed that murine malformations occurred only when a high dose of inorganic arsenic was given by intravenous or intraperitoneal injection in early gestation. Oral gavage of inorganic arsenic at maternally(More)
Estrogen regulation of inflammatory responses has broad physiological and pathological consequences. However, the molecular mechanism of estrogen regulation of inflammation is still poorly understood. In this study, we report that activation of both STAT-1 and NF-kappaB signaling is essential for Con A-induced inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and NO in murine(More)