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The subject of this paper, sun leaves are thicker and show higher photosynthetic rates than the shade leaves, is approached in two ways. The first seeks to answer the question: why are sun leaves thicker than shade leaves? To do this, CO2 diffusion within a leaf is examined first. Because affinity of Rubisco for CO2 is low, the carboxylation of ribulose(More)
Regulation of cell number and cell size is essential for controlling the shape and size of leaves. Here, we report a novel class of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants, more and smaller cells 1 (msc1)-msc3, which have increased cell number and decreased cell size in leaves. msc1 has a miR156-resistant mutation in the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE 15(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The paper by Monsi and Saeki in 1953 (Japanese Journal of Botany 14: 22-52) was pioneering not only in mathematical modelling of canopy photosynthesis but also in eco-developmental studies of seasonal changes in leaf canopies. SCOPE Construction and maintenance mechanisms of efficient photosynthetic systems at three different scaling(More)
In multicellular organisms, the coordination of cell proliferation and expansion is fundamental for proper organogenesis, yet the molecular mechanisms involved in this coordination are largely unexplored. In plant leaves, the existence of this coordination is suggested by compensation, in which a decrease in cell number triggers an increase in mature cell(More)
A chloroplast signal recognition particle (SRP) that is related to the SRP involved in secretion in bacteria and eukaryotic cells is used for the insertion of light-harvesting chlorophyll proteins (LHCPs) into the thylakoid membranes. A conserved component of the SRP mechanism is a membrane-bound SRP receptor, denoted FtsY in bacteria. Plant genomes encode(More)
Baicalein, a major component of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang Qin), is widely used in the traditional Chinese medicine. However, the mechanisms underlying cancer chemoprevention are still not clear. The present study aimed to clarify how baicalein modulate Nrf2/Keap1 system to exert its cytoprotection and cancer chemoprevention. In the upstream(More)
Leaf shape is an important factor in optimal plant growth, because leaves are the main photosynthetic organs. Plants exhibit plasticity in leaf shape and structure, allowing them to optimize photosynthetic efficiency. In Arabidopsis thaliana(L.) Heynh., several types of leaves develop differentially, according to light intensity and quality. When shaded,(More)
Angiosperm leaves generally develop as bifacial structures with distinct adaxial and abaxial identities. However, several monocot species, such as iris and leek, develop unifacial leaves, in which leaf blades have only abaxial identity. In bifacial leaves, adaxial-abaxial polarity is required for leaf blade flattening, whereas many unifacial leaves become(More)
We have investigated how the fracture behavior of a polyacrylamide hydrogel is affected by different types of solvents poured into its crack tips. We obtained the following results: first, when water (good solvent or reaction solvent for the polyacrylamide gel) is poured, the fracture energy Γ becomes smaller than that measured in air for small crack(More)
Lonicera caerulea L. berry polyphenols (LCBP) are considered as major components for bioactivity. This study aimed to clarify the molecular mechanisms by monitoring inflammatory and antioxidant mediator actions in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse paw edema and macrophage cell model. LCBP significantly attenuated LPS-induced paw edema (3.0 ± 0.1 to 2.8(More)