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In simulating realistic neuronal circuitry composed of diverse types of neurons, we need an elemental spiking neuron model that is capable of not only quantitatively reproducing spike times of biological neurons given in vivo-like fluctuating inputs, but also qualitatively representing a variety of firing responses to transient current inputs. Simplistic(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the effectiveness of zanamivir with oseltamivir for influenza A and B. METHODS 1113 patients with influenza A or B were enrolled in the 2006-2007 influenza season. The duration of fever (temperature, >or=37.5 degrees C) and the percentage of patients afebrile at 24 and 48 h after the first dose of zanamivir or oseltamivir were(More)
As we have reported, flaxseed lignan, (+)-secoisolariciresinol (SECO), (-)-SECO, and meso-SECO were stereoselectively synthesized and their biological functions were evaluated. In the present study, we focused on the effects of SECOs on the regulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and identified the structure-activity relationships. Optically active SECO and(More)
Bile acids have recently emerged as versatile signaling molecules, and their signaling pathway is a promising target for the treatment of metabolic diseases. Here, we developed a highly sensitive and high-throughput quantification method for six taurine- and glycine-conjugated bile acids using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass(More)
The relationship between antibacterial activity of tetra-substituted tetrahydrofuran lignans (1-4) and their absolute configurations was tested. Only compound 4 among two virgatusins and two related compounds exhibited growth inhibitory activity against the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria denitrificans. Compound(More)
The influence of the 6-methoxy-2-methoxymethyl-3-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-1,4-benzodioxan-7-yl group on the insecticidal activity of haedoxans was studied by synthesizing an analog without the (methoxymethyl)methinoxy moiety of the benzodioxanyl group to test for its activity on the housefly. The inactivity of the analog and its satellite compounds(More)
The antioxidant activity of butane-type lignans was evaluated. Secoisolariciresinol (SECO) and dihydroguaiaretic acid (DGA) showed higher radical scavenging activity than that of 7,7'-dioxodihydroguaiaretic acid (ODGA). SECO and DGA inhibited the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acid. Both enantiomers of DGA were also lipoxygenase inhibitors, but neither(More)
The effect of the benzylic structure of lignan on antioxidant activity was evaluated. Secoisolariciresinol (1) and 3,4-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)tetrahydrofuran (2), which have two secondary benzylic positions without oxygen, showed the highest antioxidant activity. Optically active verrucosin (4) was synthesized for the first time in this experiment.
BACKGROUND Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 with the H274Y mutation emerged and spread worldwide. However, the clinical effectiveness of the neuraminidase inhibitors, oseltamivir and zanamivir, has not been adequately reevaluated. METHODS Data from 164 patients with H1N1 virus infection and 59 patients with H3N2 virus infection during the 2008-2009(More)
The first highly enantioselective syntheses of tetra-substituted tetrahydrofuran lignan, (-)- and (+)-virgatusin, were achieved. Hemiacetal was stereoselectively obtained from Evans's syn-aldol product as a single isomer. This hemiacetal was converted to (-)-virgatusin via hydrogenolysis. (+)-Virgatusin was also synthesized through the same process. The(More)