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Human-modified forested landscapes are prevalent in the tropics, and the role of complex mosaics of diverse vegetation types in biodiversity conservation remains poorly understood. Demographic traits and the spatial pattern of biodiversity are essential information when considering proper forest management and land use strategies. We compared the tree(More)
Syntaxin-binding protein 1 (STXBP1) is essential for synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Mutations of its encoding gene, STXBP1, are among the most frequent genetic causes of epileptic encephalopathies. However, the precise pathophysiology of STXBP1 haploinsufficiency has not been elucidated. Using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), we aimed(More)
Mutation in superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), which is a cause of ALS, alters the folding patterns of this protein. Accumulation of misfolded mutant SOD1 might activate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways. Here we show that transgenic mice expressing ALS-linked SOD1 mutants exhibit molecular alterations indicative of a recruitment of ER's signaling(More)
Introducing a point mutation is a fundamental method used to demonstrate the roles of particular nucleotides or amino acids in the genetic elements or proteins, and is widely used in in vitro experiments based on cultured cells and exogenously provided DNA. However, the in vivo application of this approach by modifying genomic loci is uncommon, partly due(More)
We investigated genes expression by retrograde axonal transport of replication-defective adenoviruses carrying genes for LacZ (AdLacZ) and Bcl-2 in motor neurons of transgenic mice expressing mutant human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene containing a substitution of alanine for glycine at position 93. We found that intramuscular injection of AdLacZ(More)
In order to investigate the mechanism of dystrophin localization in the central nervous system (CNS), we generated adenovirus vectors that contained minidystrophin or truncated minidystrophin cDNA. We infected a primary neuronal culture derived from mdx mouse hippocampus with these viruses. Minidystrophin was observed along the plasma membrane as punctate(More)
The establishment of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) has enabled the production of in vitro, patient-specific cell models of human disease. In vitro recreation of disease pathology from patient-derived hiPSCs depends on efficient differentiation protocols producing relevant adult cell types. However, myogenic differentiation of hiPSCs has(More)
We present novel carbon-nanotube-based saturable absorbers. Using the low-temperature alcohol catalytic chemical-vapor deposition method, high-quality single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were directly synthesized on quartz substrates and fiber ends. We successfully applied the SWNTs to mode lock a fiber laser producing subpicosecond pulses at a 50-MHz(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease. It is characterized by neuronal loss and degeneration of the upper motor neurons (UMNs) and lower motor neurons (LMNs), and is usually fatal due to respiratory failure within 3–5 years of onset. Although approximately 5–10 % of patients with ALS have an inherited form(More)
Identification of etiology of human cancers is important for effective cancer prevention, and attempts to estimate the roles of a variety of environmental carcinogens in human cancers are being made. Here, we applied cDNA microarray technology to estimate whether gene expression profiles of cancers would reflect their etiology. Using rat mammary carcinoma(More)