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Multineuronal recordings have enabled us to examine context-dependent changes in the relationship between the activities of multiple cells. The joint peri-stimulus time histogram (JPSTH) is a much-used method for investigating the dynamics of the interdependence of spike events between pairs of cells. Its results are often taken as an estimate of(More)
Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, mainly induced by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, is known to cause retinal ganglion cell death in retinal ischemia, glaucoma, and several other retinal diseases. We evaluated the effects of β-estradiol (E2) against a single intravitreal injection of NMDA using a functional and morphological approach. Male rats were(More)
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