Satoshi Toyama

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BACKGROUND/AIMS Multiple opioid receptor (OR) types and endogenous opioid peptides exist in the spinal dorsal horn and there may be interactions among these receptor types that involve opioid peptides. In a previous study we observed that antinociceptive effects of the selective κ-opioid receptor (κOR) agonist, U50,488H, was attenuated in μ-opioid receptor(More)
Orexins are neuropeptides that are localized to neurons in the lateral and dorsal hypothalamus but its receptors are distributed to many different regions of the central nervous system. Orexins are implicated in a variety of physiological functions including sleep regulation, energy homeostats, and stress reactions. Furthermore, orexins administered(More)
H-Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH(2) ([Dmt(1)]DALDA) is a synthetic tetrapeptide with extraordinary selectivity for the mu-opioid receptor and is an extremely potent analgesic. [Dmt(1) ]DALDA is unusual in the way that the greater part of its analgesic potency appears to be produced by its actions in the spinal cord. Furthermore, [Dmt(1) ]DALDA inhibits norepinephrine(More)
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