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Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a procedure to polarize human brain. It has been reported that tDCS over the hand motor cortex transiently improves the performance of hand motor tasks. Here, we investigated whether tDCS could also improve leg motor functions. Ten healthy subjects performed pinch force (PF) and reaction time (RT) tasks(More)
Abacus experts exhibit superior short-term memory for digits, but the underlying neurophysiological mechanism remains unknown. Using event-related fMRI, we examined the brain activity of abacus experts and non-experts during the memory retention period of a delayed match-to-sample task using digits as stimuli. In controls, activity was greater in cortical(More)
Despite the fact that human Brodmann area 6 (BA6), a traditional "motor" area, is active during higher motor control involving various cognitive operations, the functional specialization within BA6 in the cognitive domain is essentially unknown. Furthermore, its functional relevance in cognition has been questioned because brain activity in BA6 during(More)
BACKGROUND Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the motor cortex can enhance the performance of a paretic upper extremity after stroke. Reported effects on lower limb (LL) function are sparse. OBJECTIVE The authors examined whether tDCS can increase the force production of the paretic quadriceps. METHODS In this double-blind, crossover,(More)
A B S T R A C T The degree of chemical weathering in soils increases with mean annual precipitation (P; mm) and mean annual temperature (T; ЊC). We have quantified these relationships using a database of major-element chemical analyses of 126 North American soils. The most robust relationship found was between P and the chemical index of alteration without(More)
Drebrin is a major actin-filament-binding protein localized in mature dendritic spines. A recent in vivo immunoelectron microscopic study suggests that drebrin content at each dendritic spine is regulated by some unknown mechanisms. In the present in vitro study, we examined whether glutamate stimulation alters drebrin content in dendritic spines. Glutamate(More)
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is one of the noteworthy noninvasive brain stimulation techniques, but the mechanism of its action remains unclear. With the aim of clarifying the mechanism, we developed a rat model and measured its effectiveness using fMRI. Carbon fiber electrodes were placed on the top of the head over the frontal cortex as(More)
Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate brain processing of the signals ascending from peripheral C and Adelta fibers evoked by phasic laser stimuli on the right hand in humans. The stimulation of both C and Adelta nociceptors activated the bilateral thalamus, bilateral secondary somatosensory cortex, right (ipsilateral)(More)
The abacus, a traditional physical calculation device, is still widely used in Asian countries. Previous behavioral work has shown that skilled abacus users perform rapid and precise mental arithmetic by manipulating a mental representation of an abacus, which is based on visual imagery. However, its neurophysiological basis remains unclear. Here, we report(More)
This report shows that highly self-reactive T cells produced in mice as a result of genetically altered thymic T cell selection spontaneously differentiate into interleukin (IL)-17-secreting CD4+ helper T (Th) cells (Th17 cells), which mediate an autoimmune arthritis that clinically and immunologically resembles rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The(More)