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The introduction of two microbial opsin-based tools, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and halorhodopsin (NpHR), to neuroscience has generated interest in fast, multimodal, cell type-specific neural circuit control. Here we describe a cation-conducting channelrhodopsin (VChR1) from Volvox carteri that can drive spiking at 589 nm, with excitation maximum red-shifted(More)
Channelrhodopsins (CHR1 and CHR2) are light-gated ion channels acting as sensory photoreceptors in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In neuroscience, they are used to trigger action potentials by light in neuronal cells, tissues, or living animals. Here, we demonstrate that Chlamydomonas cells with low CHR2 content exhibit photophobic and phototactic responses(More)
The Gram-negative bacterium Shigella flexneri invades the colonic epithelium and causes bacillary dysentery. S. flexneri requires the virulence factor invasion plasmid antigen B (IpaB) to invade host cells, escape from the phagosome and induce macrophage cell death. The mechanism by which IpaB functions remains unclear. Here, we show that purified IpaB(More)
The capture and utilization of light is an exquisitely evolved process. The single-component microbial opsins, although more limited than multicomponent cascades in processing, display unparalleled compactness and speed. Recent advances in understanding microbial opsins have been driven by molecular engineering for optogenetics and by comparative genomics.(More)
Channelrhodopsin-2 is a light-gated ion channel and a major tool of optogenetics. It is used to control neuronal activity via blue light. Here we describe the construction of color-tuned high efficiency channelrhodopsins (ChRs), based on chimeras of Chlamydomonas channelrhodopsin-1 and Volvox channelrhodopsin-1. These variants show superb expression and(More)
Protein folding homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) requires efficient protein thiol oxidation, but also relies on a parallel reductive process to edit disulfides during the maturation or degradation of secreted proteins. To critically examine the widely held assumption that reduced ER glutathione fuels disulfide reduction, we expressed a modified(More)
BACKGROUND INFORMATION In silico both orthodox aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins are shown to exclude protons. Supporting experimental evidence is available only for orthodox aquaporins. In contrast, the subset of the aquaporin water channel family that is permeable to glycerol and certain small, uncharged solutes has not yet been shown to exclude protons.(More)
NP603, the 6-dimethoxy phenyl indolin-2-one, was designed as FGF receptor 1 inhibitor by computational study. NP603 was synthesized and found to be more active against endothelial proliferation of HUVEC after the rhFGF-2 stimulation than SU6668 with minimum effective dose of 0.4 microM but with similar potency as SU16g. NP603 inhibited the tyrosine(More)
Prx (peroxiredoxin) is a multifunctional redox protein with thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase activity. Prx4 is present as a secretory protein in most tissues, whereas in sexually mature testes it is anchored in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) membrane of spermatogenic cells via an uncleaved N-terminal hydrophobic peptide. We generated a Prx4 knockout mouse(More)
The field of optogenetics uses channelrhodopsins (ChRs) for light-induced neuronal activation. However, optimized tools for cellular inhibition at moderate light levels are lacking. We found that replacement of E90 in the central gate of ChR with positively charged residues produces chloride-conducting ChRs (ChloCs) with only negligible cation conductance.(More)