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The introduction of two microbial opsin-based tools, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and halorhodopsin (NpHR), to neuroscience has generated interest in fast, multimodal, cell type-specific neural circuit control. Here we describe a cation-conducting channelrhodopsin (VChR1) from Volvox carteri that can drive spiking at 589 nm, with excitation maximum red-shifted(More)
Channelrhodopsins (CHR1 and CHR2) are light-gated ion channels acting as sensory photoreceptors in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In neuroscience, they are used to trigger action potentials by light in neuronal cells, tissues, or living animals. Here, we demonstrate that Chlamydomonas cells with low CHR2 content exhibit photophobic and phototactic responses(More)
Accumulation of pathological tau protein is a major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Tau protein spreads from the entorhinal cortex to the hippocampal region early in the disease. Microglia, the primary phagocytes in the brain, are positively correlated with tau pathology, but their involvement in tau propagation is unknown. We developed an adeno-associated(More)
The Gram-negative bacterium Shigella flexneri invades the colonic epithelium and causes bacillary dysentery. S. flexneri requires the virulence factor invasion plasmid antigen B (IpaB) to invade host cells, escape from the phagosome and induce macrophage cell death. The mechanism by which IpaB functions remains unclear. Here, we show that purified IpaB(More)
Prx (peroxiredoxin) is a multifunctional redox protein with thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase activity. Prx4 is present as a secretory protein in most tissues, whereas in sexually mature testes it is anchored in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) membrane of spermatogenic cells via an uncleaved N-terminal hydrophobic peptide. We generated a Prx4 knockout mouse(More)
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 has been considered to play a critical role in neovascularization in several tumors; however, its precise role in tumor progression is not fully understood. In the present study, we have characterized the role of FGF-2 in B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells, focusing on effects during the initial phase of tumor growth. FGF-2 was(More)
The capture and utilization of light is an exquisitely evolved process. The single-component microbial opsins, although more limited than multicomponent cascades in processing, display unparalleled compactness and speed. Recent advances in understanding microbial opsins have been driven by molecular engineering for optogenetics and by comparative genomics.(More)
Protein folding homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) requires efficient protein thiol oxidation, but also relies on a parallel reductive process to edit disulfides during the maturation or degradation of secreted proteins. To critically examine the widely held assumption that reduced ER glutathione fuels disulfide reduction, we expressed a modified(More)
Channelrhodopsin-2 is a light-gated ion channel and a major tool of optogenetics. It is used to control neuronal activity via blue light. Here we describe the construction of color-tuned high efficiency channelrhodopsins (ChRs), based on chimeras of Chlamydomonas channelrhodopsin-1 and Volvox channelrhodopsin-1. These variants show superb expression and(More)
Channelrhodopsins (ChRs) are light-gated ion channels that control photomovement of microalgae. In optogenetics, ChRs are widely applied for light-triggering action potentials in cells, tissues, and living animals, yet the spectral properties and photocycle of ChR remain obscure. In this study, we cloned a ChR from the colonial alga Volvox carteri, VChR.(More)