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Oxidative DNA damage causes blocks and errors in transcription and replication, leading to cell death and genomic instability. Although repair mechanisms of the damage have been extensively analyzed in vitro, the actual in vivo repair processes remain largely unknown. Here, by irradiation with an UVA laser through a microscope lens, we have conditionally(More)
A human chromosome 21-specific cosmid library from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been analyzed by two complementary methods, fingerprinting and hybridization; 40% coverage of the entire chromosome 21 has been achieved. To prepare a contig pool, approximately 9300 cosmid clones randomly selected from the library were fingerprinted and(More)
In the widely accepted molecular model underlying mammalian circadian rhythm, cryptochrome proteins (CRYs) play indispensable roles as inhibitive components of the CLOCK-BMAL1-mediated transcriptional-translational negative feedback loop. In order to clarify yet uncovered aspects of mammalian CRYs in vivo, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice ubiquitously(More)
The first step of heme biosynthesis in animals is catalyzed by 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS), which controls heme supply in various tissues. To clarify the roles that the nonspecific isoform of ALAS (ALAS-N) plays in vivo, we prepared a green fluorescent protein (GFP) knock-in mouse line in which the Alas1 gene (encoding ALAS-N) is replaced with a gfp(More)
DNA single-strand breaks (SSB) are one of the most frequent DNA lesions produced by reactive oxygen species and during DNA metabolism, but the analysis of cellular responses to SSB remains difficult due to the lack of an experimental method to produce SSB alone in cells. By using human cells expressing a foreign UV damage endonuclease (UVDE) and irradiating(More)
Molecular defects in erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS-E), the first enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway, cause X-linked sideroblastic anemia (XLSA). However, ring sideroblasts, the hallmark of XLSA, were not found in ALAS-E-deficient mouse embryos, indicating that simple ALAS-E-deficiency is not sufficient for ring sideroblast formation. To(More)
To help in isolating the genes involved in Down syndrome, we sought CpG islands in 4 Mb cosmid/PAC contigs spanning most of the 21q.22.2 band using seven rare cutting enzymes. A striking feature was observed upstream of hSIM2 where at least 41 rare-cutting sites were clustered within a 20-kb region. To investigate the structure of the cluster, a cosmid(More)
The major phenotypic features of Down syndrome have been correlated with partial trisomies of chromosome 21, allowing us to define the candidate gene region to a 4-Mb segment on the 21q22.2 band. We present here a high-resolution physical map with megabase-sized cosmid/PAC contigs. This ordered clone library has provided unique material for the integration(More)
BACKGROUND An earlier report described that transgenic mice ubiquitously expressing cryptochrome1 (CRY1) with a mutation in cystein414 (CRY1-AP Tg mice) display diabetes mellitus in addition to anomalous circadian behaviours. This study examined characteristic aspects of symptoms to clarify the diabetes type and pathogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The(More)
AIMS/INTRODUCTION In earlier reports, we described that transgenic (Tg) mice ubiquitously expressing cryptochrome1 (CRY1) with a mutation in cysteine414 (CRY1-AP Tg mice) show an early-onset insulin-secretory defect of diabetes mellitus resembling human maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). To clarify the yet undiscovered molecular pathogenesis of(More)