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Paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin in venous blood is a naturally occurring contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By accentuating the effects of this agent through the use of gradient-echo techniques in high fields, we demonstrate in vivo images of brain microvasculature with image contrast reflecting the blood oxygen level. This blood oxygenation(More)
We report that visual stimulation produces an easily detectable (5-20%) transient increase in the intensity of water proton magnetic resonance signals in human primary visual cortex in gradient echo images at 4-T magnetic-field strength. The observed changes predominantly occur in areas containing gray matter and can be used to produce(More)
It recently has been demonstrated that magnetic resonance imaging can be used to map changes in brain hemodynamics produced by human mental operations. One method under development relies on blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast: a change in the signal strength of brain water protons produced by the paramagnetic effects of venous blood(More)
This article reviews the preliminary experiences and the results obtained on the human brain at 4 T at the University of Minnesota. Anatomical and functional images are presented. Contrary to initial expectations and the early results, it is possible to obtain high-resolution images of the human brain with exquisite T1 contrast, delineating structures(More)
At high magnetic fields (7 and 8.4 T), water proton magnetic resonance images of brains of live mice and rats under pentobarbital anesthetization have been measured by a gradient echo pulse sequence with a spatial resolution of 65 x 65-microns pixel size and 700-microns slice thickness. The contrast in these images depicts anatomical details of the brain by(More)
Unusually high image contrast in vivo magnetic resonance imaging of the brain becomes observable at high magnetic fields when the blood oxygenation level is lowered. The cause of the contrast has been attributed to a magnetic susceptibility effect induced by paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin in red cells. When the cylinder axis of a blood vessel is not parallel(More)
We have identified and characterized a novel human estrogen receptor (ER) beta isoform, ERbetacx, which is truncated at the C-terminal region but has an extra 26 amino acids due to alternative splicing. The ERbetacx transcript is expressed in testis, ovary, thymus and prostate as well as in human cultured cell lines such as HEC-1, HOS-TE85 and Saos-2 cells.(More)
Human estrogen receptor beta (hER beta) cDNA that encodes the full-length amino acid sequence has been isolated from testis poly(A)+ RNA with the combination of cDNA screening and reverse transcription-PCR. It is composed of a 1590-bp open reading frame and a segment of the 5'- and 3'-untranslated region (UTR) and encodes an additional 53 amino acids in the(More)
The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect in functional magnetic resonance imaging depends on at least partial uncoupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) changes. By measuring CBF and BOLD simultaneously, the relative change in CMRO2 can be estimated during neural activity using a reference condition(More)
In this paper, we demonstrate an approach by which some evoked neuronal events can be probed by functional MRI (fMRI) signal with temporal resolution at the time scale of tens of milliseconds. The approach is based on the close relationship between neuronal electrical events and fMRI signal that is experimentally demonstrated in concurrent fMRI and(More)