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Cyanobacteria are the only bacterial species found to have a circadian clock. We used DNA microarrays to examine circadian expression patterns in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. Our analysis identified 54 (2%) and 237 (9%) genes that exhibited circadian rhythms under stringent and relaxed filtering conditions, respectively. The(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate salivary flow rate and buffering capacity using a quantitative pH measurement among three broad age groups. METHODS The population consisting of 117 patients was classified into three age groups: young, middle-aged, and elderly group. The volume of stimulated saliva after chewing gum was measured. Saliva samples were titrated with(More)
This in vitro study evaluated the pH value of active and arrested caries lesions in deep dentinal caries using a pH-imaging microscope (SCHEM-100, HORIBA Ltd, Kyoto, Japan). Buccal-lingual cut sections of extracted human teeth that had either active or arrested dentinal caries lesions were placed on the pH-imaging sensor of the microscope. The pH values(More)
OBJECTIVE This study was to examine the effect of artificial saliva contamination on pH change of the dentin surface and the micro-shear bond strength (MSBS) of the two bonding systems to contaminated dentin. METHODS Fifty-six human dentin disks were tested with two resin bonding systems: a self-etching primer system, Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray Medical(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate and compare saliva buffer capacity using a hand-held pH meter and a commercial buffer strip in patients at risk of caries. METHODS To obtain stimulated saliva, 109 patients were given a paraffin wax to chew for 5 minutes. After reading the pH value of 0.5 ml of tested saliva using a portable hand-held pH meter (B-212), 10 microl of(More)
AIM To examine the changes in pH of luting cements and acid diffusion of luting cements through bovine dentine using a pH-imaging microscope (SCHEM-100; Horiba Ltd, Kyoto, Japan). METHODOLOGY The pH of the surface of three conventional luting cements, glass-ionomer, zinc phosphate and zinc polycarboxylate was measured with SCHEM-100 for 1 month. The acid(More)
Recent studies have suggested that basic leucine zipper transcription factor MafA has a crucial role in pancreatic beta-cell-specific insulin gene transcription. Thus, we investigated whether MafA overexpression in the intestine induces insulin production in small-intestinal epithelial cells in vivo. Recombinant adenovirus containing MafA gene (Ad-MafA) was(More)
OBJECTIVES This study examined the relationship between a ceramic primer and ceramic surface pH on the microtensile bond strength of dual-cure resin cement to ceramic. METHODS Ceramic blocks (Vita Celay Blanks) were cut into multiple 3mm-thick slices and polished using 600-grit SiC paper. Two pairs were left untreated (controls), six pairs were treated(More)
This study compared the dentin bond strength of a self-etching primer/adhesive system with dentin surface pH with or without bleaching and observed the morphological changes in bleached dentin treated with a self-etching primer. Dentin disks were prepared from the coronal-labial region of 32 human anterior teeth. The pulpal surfaces of the dentin disks were(More)
In this paper, we present a computational approach to understanding and augmenting the conversational knowledge process that is a collective activity for knowledge creation, management, and application, where conversational communications are used as a primary means of interaction among participating agents. The key idea is conversation quantization, a(More)