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Light is one of the most important environmental factors that determine the timing of a plant's transition from the vegetative to reproductive, or flowering, phase. Not only daylength but also the spectrum of light greatly affect flowering. The shade of nearby vegetation reduces the ratio of red to far-red light and can trigger shade avoidance responses,(More)
In this paper, we propose a postfilter to compensate modulation spectrum in HMM-based speech synthesis. In order to alleviate over-smoothing effects which is a main cause of quality degradation in HMM-based speech synthesis, it is necessary to consider features that can capture over-smoothing. Global Variance (GV) is one well-known example of such a(More)
Crystal structures of chitosanase from Bacillus sp. K17 (ChoK) have been determined at 1.5 A resolution in the active form and at 2.0 A resolution in the inactive form. This enzyme belongs to the family GH-8, out of 93 glycoside hydrolase families, and exhibits the substrate specificity of subclass II chitosanase. The catalytic site is constructed on the(More)
It has been proposed that motor imagery contains an element of sensory experiences (kinesthetic sensations), which is a substitute for the sensory feedback that would normally arise from the overt action. No evidence has been provided about whether kinesthetic sensation is centrally simulated during motor imagery. We psychophysically tested whether motor(More)
Social bookmarking is an emerging type of a Web service that helps users share, classify, and discover interesting resources. In this paper, we explore the concept of an enhanced search, in which data from social bookmarking systems is exploited for enhancing search in the Web. We propose combining the widely used link-based ranking metric with the one(More)
This paper describes an approach for automatic scoring of pronunciation quality for non-native speech. It is applicable regardless of the foreign language student's mother tongue. Sentences and words are considered as scoring units. Additionally, mispronunciation and phoneme confusion statistics for the target language phoneme set are derived from human(More)
This paper reports on a project for collection of the sound scene data. The sound scene data is necessary for studies such as sound source localization, sound retrieval, sound recognition and hands-free speech recognition in real acoustical environments. There are many kinds of sound scenes in real environments. The sound scene is denoted by sound sources(More)
Neural machine translation (NMT) often makes mistakes in translating low-frequency content words that are essential to understanding the meaning of the sentence. We propose a method to alleviate this problem by augmenting NMT systems with discrete translation lexicons that efficiently encode translations of these low-frequency words. We describe a method to(More)
OBJECTIVE Behçet's disease (BD) with uveoretinitis is a chronic refractory disease accompanied by ocular attacks. As the decrease in visual acuity due to ocular attack is seriously life-threatening, development of a new drug is anticipated. Since tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) is involved in the symptoms of BD, particularly the activity of ocular symptoms,(More)