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Oxidation of cysteine pairs to disulfide requires cellular factors present in the bacterial periplasmic space. DsbB is an E. coli membrane protein that oxidizes DsbA, a periplasmic dithiol oxidase. To gain insight into disulfide bond formation, we determined the crystal structure of the DsbB-DsbA complex at 3.7 A resolution. The structure of DsbB revealed(More)
AcrB is a principal multidrug efflux transporter in Escherichia coli that cooperates with an outer-membrane channel, TolC, and a membrane-fusion protein, AcrA. Here we describe crystal structures of AcrB with and without substrates. The AcrB-drug complex consists of three protomers, each of which has a different conformation corresponding to one of the(More)
Neural stem cells called neuroblasts (NBs) generate a variety of neuronal and glial cells in the central nervous system of the Drosophila embryo. These NBs, few in number, are selected from a field of neuroepithelial (NE) cells. In the optic lobe of the third instar larva, all NE cells of the outer optic anlage (OOA) develop into either NBs that generate(More)
Several studies have shown that differences in lipid composition and in the lipid biosynthetic pathway affect the aluminium (Al) tolerance of plants, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences. Phospholipids create a negative charge at the surface of the plasma membrane and enhance Al sensitivity as a result of the(More)
BACKGROUND Endoscopic mucosal resection is an established treatment option for early stage gastric cancer. However, several problems with endoscopic mucosal resection remain to be solved, such as appropriate treatment for recurrence and incomplete tumor resection. The outcome for patients undergoing endoscopic aspiration mucosectomy (endoscopic mucosal(More)
We previously reported the crystal structure of the major multidrug exporter AcrB in Escherichia coli (Murakami, S., Nakashima, R., Yamashita, E., and Yamaguchi, A. (2002) Nature 419, 587-593). The extramembrane headpiece of the AcrB trimer contains a central pore composed of three alpha-helices. Each pore helix belongs to a different monomer. In this(More)
From October 2013 to date, approximately 1,000 outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) have occurred in Japan. Porcine epidemic diarrhoea with non-lethal effects in piglets was identified in Tottori prefecture in October 2014. Complete genome analysis revealed that the causative pathogen, Tottori2, is a new PEDV variant with a large (582 nt)(More)
Since October 2013, approximately 1000 outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PED) have occurred, spanning almost all prefectures of Japan, after a period of seven years without a reported case. In order to consider occurrence factor of PED outbreaks, we determined the whole-genome sequences of 38 PED virus (PEDV) strains from diarrheal samples collected(More)
In Drosophila melanogaster, the axons of retinal photoreceptor cells extend to the first optic ganglion, the lamina, forming a topographic representation. Here we show that DWnt4, a secreted protein of the Wnt family, is the ventral cue for the lamina. In DWnt4 mutants, ventral retinal axons misprojected to the dorsal lamina. DWnt4 was normally expressed in(More)
Multidrug resistance has been a critical issue in current chemotherapy. In Escherichia coli , a major efflux pump responsible for the multidrug resistance contains a transporter AcrB. Crystallographic studies and mutational assays of AcrB provided much of structural and overall functional insights, which led to the functionally rotating mechanism. However,(More)