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AcrB is a principal multidrug efflux transporter in Escherichia coli that cooperates with an outer-membrane channel, TolC, and a membrane-fusion protein, AcrA. Here we describe crystal structures of AcrB with and without substrates. The AcrB-drug complex consists of three protomers, each of which has a different conformation corresponding to one of the(More)
Oxidation of cysteine pairs to disulfide requires cellular factors present in the bacterial periplasmic space. DsbB is an E. coli membrane protein that oxidizes DsbA, a periplasmic dithiol oxidase. To gain insight into disulfide bond formation, we determined the crystal structure of the DsbB-DsbA complex at 3.7 A resolution. The structure of DsbB revealed(More)
Neural stem cells called neuroblasts (NBs) generate a variety of neuronal and glial cells in the central nervous system of the Drosophila embryo. These NBs, few in number, are selected from a field of neuroepithelial (NE) cells. In the optic lobe of the third instar larva, all NE cells of the outer optic anlage (OOA) develop into either NBs that generate(More)
Several studies have shown that differences in lipid composition and in the lipid biosynthetic pathway affect the aluminium (Al) tolerance of plants, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences. Phospholipids create a negative charge at the surface of the plasma membrane and enhance Al sensitivity as a result of the(More)
We previously reported the crystal structure of the major multidrug exporter AcrB in Escherichia coli (Murakami, S., Nakashima, R., Yamashita, E., and Yamaguchi, A. (2002) Nature 419, 587-593). The extramembrane headpiece of the AcrB trimer contains a central pore composed of three alpha-helices. Each pore helix belongs to a different monomer. In this(More)
In Drosophila melanogaster, the axons of retinal photoreceptor cells extend to the first optic ganglion, the lamina, forming a topographic representation. Here we show that DWnt4, a secreted protein of the Wnt family, is the ventral cue for the lamina. In DWnt4 mutants, ventral retinal axons misprojected to the dorsal lamina. DWnt4 was normally expressed in(More)
Multidrug resistance has been a critical issue in current chemotherapy. In Escherichia coli , a major efflux pump responsible for the multidrug resistance contains a transporter AcrB. Crystallographic studies and mutational assays of AcrB provided much of structural and overall functional insights, which led to the functionally rotating mechanism. However,(More)
OBJECTIVES Insulin-derived amyloidosis is a rare skin-related complication of insulin therapy. The purpose of this study was to show the effects of insulin-derived amyloidosis on blood glucose levels, insulin dose requirements, and insulin absorption. METHODS Seven patients were found to have insulin-derived amyloidosis at the Tokyo Medical University(More)
The AcrAB-TolC system exports a wide variety of drugs and toxic compounds, and confers intrinsic drug tolerance on Escherichia coli. The crystal structures suggested that AcrB and TolC directly dock with each other. However, biochemical and biophysical evidence of their interaction has been contradictory until recently. In this study, we examine the(More)
The major cause of intrinsic drug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is a resistance nodulation division type multidrug exporter, which couples with an outer membrane channel and a membrane fusion protein and exports drugs out of the cell, bypassing the periplasm; this process is driven by proton motive force. A recent crystal structure determination of a(More)