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AcrB is a principal multidrug efflux transporter in Escherichia coli that cooperates with an outer-membrane channel, TolC, and a membrane-fusion protein, AcrA. Here we describe crystal structures of AcrB with and without substrates. The AcrB-drug complex consists of three protomers, each of which has a different conformation corresponding to one of the(More)
Neural stem cells called neuroblasts (NBs) generate a variety of neuronal and glial cells in the central nervous system of the Drosophila embryo. These NBs, few in number, are selected from a field of neuroepithelial (NE) cells. In the optic lobe of the third instar larva, all NE cells of the outer optic anlage (OOA) develop into either NBs that generate(More)
Oxidation of cysteine pairs to disulfide requires cellular factors present in the bacterial periplasmic space. DsbB is an E. coli membrane protein that oxidizes DsbA, a periplasmic dithiol oxidase. To gain insight into disulfide bond formation, we determined the crystal structure of the DsbB-DsbA complex at 3.7 A resolution. The structure of DsbB revealed(More)
In Drosophila melanogaster, the axons of retinal photoreceptor cells extend to the first optic ganglion, the lamina, forming a topographic representation. Here we show that DWnt4, a secreted protein of the Wnt family, is the ventral cue for the lamina. In DWnt4 mutants, ventral retinal axons misprojected to the dorsal lamina. DWnt4 was normally expressed in(More)
Several studies have shown that differences in lipid composition and in the lipid biosynthetic pathway affect the aluminium (Al) tolerance of plants, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences. Phospholipids create a negative charge at the surface of the plasma membrane and enhance Al sensitivity as a result of the(More)
S. pombe centromeres are large and complex. We introduced a method that enables us to characterize directly centromere DNAs. Genomic DNA fragments containing cen1, cen2, or cen3, respectively, are made by cleaving NotI sites integrated on target sites and are partially restricted for long-range mapping in PFG electrophoresis. The 40 kb long cen1 consists of(More)
A neural network model that recognizes spatiotemporal patterns without expanding them into spatial patterns is presented. This model forms tra jectory attractors in the state space of a fully recurrent network by a simple learning algorithm using nonmonotone dynamics. When a spatiotemporal pattern is inputted after learning, the network state is attracted(More)
Model-driven architecture (MDA) aims at automating software design processes. Design models are divided into platform-indepen- dent models (PIMs) and platform-specific models (PSMs). A model compiler transforms the former models into the latter automatically. We can regard PIMs as a new kind of reusable software component because they can be reused even if(More)
During development of the Drosophila visual center, photoreceptor cells extend their axons (R axons) to the lamina ganglion layer, and trigger proliferation and differentiation of synaptic partners (lamina neurons) by delivering the inductive signal Hedgehog (Hh). This inductive mechanism helps to establish an orderly arrangement of connections between the(More)
Aspect orientation is important not only at the programming-level but also at the modeling-level. We previously proposed an aspect-oriented modeling language called AspectM for managing modeling-level aspects. Although AspectM provides basic modeling facilities for a modeler, the language constructs cannot be extended. In this paper, we propose a mechanism(More)