Satoshi Minoshima

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The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned(More)
Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease with complex clinical features. Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP) maps to the long arm of chromosome 6 (6q25.2-q27) and is linked strongly to the markers D6S305 and D6S253; the former is deleted in one Japanese AR-JP patient. By positional cloning within this microdeletion, we have(More)
This study investigated cerebral glucose metabolism in very early Alzheimer's disease, before a clinical diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease is possible, using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. First, 66 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease with a spectrum of dementia severity (Mini-Mental State Examination score, 0-23) were(More)
The concept of working memory is central to theories of human cognition because working memory is essential to such human skills as language comprehension and deductive reasoning. Working memory is thought to be composed of two parts, a set of buffers that temporarily store information in either a phonological or visuospatial form, and a central executive(More)
We report an experiment that assesses the effect of variations in memory load on brain activations that mediate verbal working memory. The paradigm that forms the basis of this experiment is the "n-back" task in which subjects must decide for each letter in a series whether it matches the one presented n items back in the series. This task is of interest(More)
We used positron emission tomography (PET) to answer the following question: Is working memory a unitary storage system, or does it instead include different storage buffers for different kinds of information? In Experiment 1, PET measures were taken while subjects engaged in either a spatial-memory task (retain the position of three dots for 3 sec) or an(More)
BACKGROUND Variants of the apolipoprotein E allele appear to account for most cases of late-onset Alzheimer's disease, and persons with two copies of the epsilon 4 allele appear to have an especially high risk of dementia. Positron-emission tomography (PET) has identified specific regions of the brain in which the rate of glucose metabolism declines(More)
Frontal lobe activity during pain is generally linked to attentional processing. We addressed the question of whether 'bottom-up' processing and 'top-down' modulation of nociceptive information dissociate anatomically within the frontal lobe by using PET scanning during painful thermal stimulation of normal and capsaicin-treated skin. We showed recently(More)
BACKGROUND Repetitive recall of traumatic memories and chronic intermittent hyperarousal are characteristic of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Hyperarousal and memory dysfunction implicates "limbic" brain regions, including the amygdaloid complex, hippocampal formation, and limbic cortex, such as the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate areas. To(More)
The Stroop task, in which subjects must name the color of letters that spell color words different than the color-to-be-named, provides an important experimental paradigm for the study of selective attention. Cerebral blood flow activation studies have not always demonstrated consistent activation patterns; inconsistent results may reflect nonspecific(More)