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We have revealed that 100-200 clusters, filled with closely packed lymphocytes, can be found throughout the length of the antimesenteric wall of the mouse small intestine. They are composed of a large B cell area, including a germinal center, and epithelia overlying the clusters contain M cells. A large fraction of B cells displays B220+ CD19+ CD23+(More)
BACKGROUND Lactobacillus casei is a nonpathogenic gram-positive bacterium widely used in dairy products and has been shown to enhance the cellular immunity of the host. METHODS To examine the inhibitory effect of L. casei on IgE production, splenocytes obtained from ovalbumin (OVA)-primed BALB/c mice were restimulated in vitro with the same antigen in the(More)
Peyer's patch (PP) dendritic cells (DCs) have been shown to exhibit a distinct capacity to induce cytokine secretion from CD4(+) T cells compared with DCs in other lymphoid organs such as the spleen (SP). In this study, we investigated whether PP DCs are functionally different from DCs in the SP in their ability to induce Ab production from B cells.(More)
Murine CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory cells have been reported to express latency-associated peptide (LAP) and TGF-beta on the surface after activation, and exert regulatory function by the membrane-bound TGF-beta in vitro. We have now found that a small population of CD4(+) T cells, both CD25(+) and CD25(-), can be stained with a goat anti-LAP polyclonal Ab(More)
The mucosal immune system provides the first line of defense against inhaled and ingested pathogenic microbacteria and viruses. This defense system, to a large extent, is mediated by the actions of secretory IgA. In this study, we screened 140 strains of lactic acid bacteria for induction of IgA production by murine Peyer's patch cells. We selected one(More)
BACKGROUND Our previous study using allergen-sensitized murine splenocyte cultures has shown that Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS), a lactic acid bacterium widely used as a starter for fermented milk products, suppresses IgE production through promoting a dominant Th1-type response mediated by IL-12 induction. OBJECTIVE We tried to evaluate the(More)
Oral tolerance is a key feature of intestinal immunity, generating systemic tolerance to ingested antigens (Ag). Dendritic cells (DC) have been revealed as important immune regulators, however, the precise role of DC in oral tolerance induction remains unclear. We investigated the characteristics of DC in spleen, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), and Peyer's(More)
We have investigated the immunomodulatory mechanisms of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum JCM7041 (Bp) as model of probiotics following oral administration to mice. This study was conducted with the aim of clarifying the mechanism of immunomodulation induced by oral administration of probiotic bacteria through elucidation of the detailed mechanism of(More)
The oral administration of antigen can lead to systemic antigen-specific hyporesponsiveness, also known as oral tolerance. This phenomenon is a representative form of immune tolerance to exogenous antigen under physiological conditions. We have previously reported that long term feeding of dietary antigen to ovalbumin-specific T cell receptor (TCR)(More)
β-Glucans, glucose polymers that are the main constituents of the outer cell walls of micro-organisms such as fungi and yeast, are known to play an immunostimulatory role. We prepared β-glucan (β-(1-3),(1-6)-D-glucan) from an edible cultured fungus through fermentation techniques using a strain of Aureobasidium pullulans ADK-34. The purity of this β-glucan(More)