Satoshi Arai

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In various cellular membrane systems, vacuolar ATPases (V-ATPases) function as proton pumps, which are involved in many processes such as bone resorption and cancer metastasis, and these membrane proteins represent attractive drug targets for osteoporosis and cancer. The hydrophilic V(1) portion is known as a rotary motor, in which a central axis DF complex(More)
V-ATPases function as ATP-dependent ion pumps in various membrane systems of living organisms. ATP hydrolysis causes rotation of the central rotor complex, which is composed of the central axis D subunit and a membrane c ring that are connected by F and d subunits. Here we determined the crystal structure of the DF complex of the prokaryotic V-ATPase of(More)
In the basal ganglia (BG), dopamine plays a pivotal role in motor control, and dopamine deficiency results in severe motor dysfunctions as seen in Parkinson's disease. According to the well-accepted model of the BG, dopamine activates striatal direct pathway neurons that directly project to the output nuclei of the BG through D1 receptors (D1Rs), whereas(More)
We fabricated fluorescent nanoparticles which monitor temperature changes without sensitivity to pH (4-10) and ionic strength (0-500 mM). The nanothermometers spontaneously enter living HeLa cells via endocytosis, enclosed in acidic organelles, i.e., endosome/lysosome, and then transported along microtubules in a temperature-dependent manner, working as(More)
Cyclic AMP is a ubiquitous second messenger, which mediates many cellular responses mainly initiated by activation of cell surface receptors. Various Förster resonance energy transfer-based ratiometric cAMP indicators have been created for monitoring the spatial and temporal dynamics of cAMP at the single-cell level. However, single fluorescent(More)
The dynamics of cellular heat production and propagation remains elusive at a subcellular level. Here we report the first small molecule fluorescent thermometer selectively targeting the endoplasmic reticulum (ER thermo yellow), with the highest sensitivity reported so far (3.9%/°C). Unlike nanoparticle thermometers, ER thermo yellow stains the target(More)
Static analysis tools such as bug pattern tools are useful to detect bugs early in software development. However, existing tools sometimes yield so many warnings that developers tend to ignore such warnings. To deal with this problem, we propose a gamified tool for motivating developers to remove such warnings. Our tool employs the gamification technique(More)
Tetragonal barium titanate nanoparticles (BTNPs) have been exploited as nanotransducers owing to their piezoelectric properties, in order to provide indirect electrical stimulation to SH-SY5Y neuron-like cells. Following application of ultrasounds to cells treated with BTNPs, fluorescence imaging of ion dynamics revealed that the synergic stimulation is(More)
Existing AOP tools, typified by AspectJ, are proposed as extensions of a single language. Therefore, most existing AOP tools cannot deal with cross-cutting concerns, which are scattered on many modules implemented in two or more languages. We propose a novel language-independent AOP framework named UniAspect. UniAspect translates programs written in various(More)
Intracellular thermometry at the microscopic level is currently a hot topic. Herein we describe a small molecule fluorescent thermometer targeting mitochondria (Mito thermo yellow). Mito thermo yellow successfully demonstrates the ability to monitor the intracellular temperature gradient, generated by exogenous heating, in various cells.