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BACKGROUND Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe dystrophic muscle wasting from birth or early infancy with structural brain abnormalities. The gene for FCMD is located on chromosome 9q31, and encodes a novel protein named fukutin. The function of fukutin is not known yet, but is(More)
Ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) gene mutations are associated with central core disease (CCD), multiminicore disease (MmD) and malignant hyperthermia (MH), and have been reported to be responsible for 47-67% of patients with CCD and rare cases with MmD. However, to date, the true frequency and distribution of the mutations along the RYR1 gene have not been(More)
OBJECTIVE Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is a genetically heterogeneous muscular disease that presents with muscular dystrophy, joint contractures, and cardiomyopathy with conduction defects. Mutations in several nuclear envelope protein genes have been associated with EDMD in less than half of patients, implying the existence of other causative(More)
Lysosomes are membrane-bound acidic organelles that contain hydrolases used for intracellular digestion of various macromolecules in a process generally referred to as autophagy. In normal skeletal and cardiac muscles, lysosomes usually appear morphologically unremarkable and thus are not readily visible on light microscopy. In distinct neuromuscular(More)
Hox genes encode transcription factors which provide positional information during morphogenesis along the body axis; genetic interaction among Hox genes is thought to be necessary for correct pattern formation. One of the most curious features of the 39 vertebrate Hox genes is that they form four clusters each composed of several genes paralogous between(More)
The dystrophin-associated membrane-integrated protein complex anchors dystrophin in the sarcolemma of striated muscles and is composed of two glycoprotein subcomplexes, the dystroglycan and the sarcoglycan (SG) complexes, and a small membrane protein termed sarcospan (SPN). The SG complex consists of four transmembrane glycoproteins, alpha-SG, beta-SG,(More)
Recently, mutations in the genes encoding several of the dystrophin-associated proteins have been identified that produce phenotypes ranging from severe Duchenne-like autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy to the milder limb-girdle muscular dys-trophies (LGMDs). LGMD type 2C is generally associated with a more severe clinical course and is prevalent in(More)
Definition of cellular responses to cytokines often involves cross-communication through their respective receptors. Here, signaling by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is shown to depend on the IFN-alpha/beta receptor components. Although these IFNs transmit signals through distinct receptor complexes, the IFN-alpha/beta receptor component, IFNAR1, facilitates(More)
Sodium- and potassium-dependent ATPase [(Na+ + K+)ATPase], which is responsible for the active transport of Na+ and K+, is distributed universally among animal cell membranes and consists of two types of subunits, alpha and beta (refs 1-4). The larger alpha-subunit with a relative molecular mass (Mr) of 84,000-120,000 is thought to have the catalytic role.(More)