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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are defined as cells that undergo sustained in vitro growth and can give rise to multiple mesenchymal lineages. Because MSCs have only been isolated from tissue in culture, the equivalent cells have not been identified in vivo and little is known about their physiological roles or even their exact tissue location. In this(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a heterogeneous subset of stromal stem cells isolated from many adult tissues. Previous studies reported that MSCs can differentiate to both mesodermal and neural lineages by a phenomenon referred to as ''dedifferentiation'' or ''transdifferentiation''. However, since MSCs have only been defined in vitro, much of their(More)
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFR-α) and stem cell antigen 1 (Sca-1) have recently been identified as selective markers of mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). PDGFR-α(+)Sca-1(+) (PαS) MSCs have augmented growth potential and robust tri-lineage differentiation compared with standard culture-selected MSCs. In addition, the selective isolation(More)
Although recent reports have described multipotent, self-renewing, neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs), the NCSCs in various adult rodent tissues have not been well characterized or compared. Here we identified NCSCs in the bone marrow (BM), dorsal root ganglia, and whisker pad and prospectively isolated them from adult transgenic mice encoding neural(More)
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), which conventionally are isolated based on their adherence to plastic, are heterogeneous and have poor growth and differentiation, limiting our ability to investigate their intrinsic characteristics. We report an improved prospective clonal isolation technique and reveal that the combination of three cell-surface(More)
The uridine diphosphoglucuronate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) gene encodes the enzyme responsible for bilirubin glucuronidation. To evaluate the contribution of UGT1A1 promoter mutations to neonatal jaundice, we determined the genotypes of c.-3279T>G, c.-3156G>A, and A(TA)7TAA in Malay infants with neonatal jaundice (patients) and in infants without(More)
We previously reported the beneficial effect of administering an anti-mouse IL-6 receptor antibody (MR16-1) immediately after spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of our present study was to clarify the mechanism underlying how MR16-1 improves motor function after SCI. Quantitative analyses of inflammatory cells using flow cytometry, and(More)
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common neuromuscular disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance, resulting in the degeneration of motor neurons. The incidence of the disease has been estimated at 1 in 6000-10,000 newborns with a carrier frequency of 1 in 40-60. SMA is caused by mutations of the SMN1 gene, located on chromosome 5q13. The gene product,(More)
BACKGROUND Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated from mouse and human somatic cells by the forced expression of defined transcription factors. Although most somatic cells are capable of acquiring pluripotency with minimal gene transduction, the poor efficiency of cell reprogramming and the uneven quality of iPS cells are still important(More)
Minimal residual disease (MRD) is derived from tumor-initiating cells (TICs) and is responsible for tumor relapse. Neuroblastoma is characterized by extreme tumor heterogeneity, and more than half of high-risk patients experience tumor relapse. To overcome tumor heterogeneity and achieve more sensitive detection(More)