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Light is a powerful synchronizer of the circadian rhythms, and bright light therapy is known to improve metabolic and hormonal status of circadian rhythm sleep disorders, although its mechanism is poorly understood. In the present study, we revealed that light induces gene expression in the adrenal gland via the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)-sympathetic(More)
Chronic treatment of methamphetamine (MAP) in rats desynchronized the locomotor activity rhythm from the light-dark cycle. When the activity rhythm was completely phase-reversed with respect to a light dark-cycle, 24 h profiles were examined for the clock gene (rPer1, rPer2, rBMAL1, rClock) expressions in several brain structures by in situ hybridization,(More)
Circadian expression, light-responsiveness and localization of clock genes, rPer1 and rPer2, were examined in the rat retina under constant darkness. A significant circadian variation was detected in rPer2 transcript levels with a peak at ZT14, but not in the rPer1. A light pulse given after constant darkness of 3 days increased both rPer1 and rPer2(More)
CS mice exhibit a spontaneous splitting in the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity under constant darkness, suggesting that they contain two weakly coupled oscillators in the circadian clock system regulating locomotor activity rhythm. In order to clarify whether the two oscillators are located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a site of the master(More)
It is well established that the Clock gene is essential for expressing circadian activity rhythms in mammals under constant darkness. The Clock gene product is a positive component of a molecular feedback loop which is assumed to generate the circadian rhythm. On the other hand, chronic treatment of methamphetamine (MAP) induces locomotor activity rhythm in(More)
Maternal inheritance of mtDNA is the rule in most animals, but the reasons for this pattern remain unclear. To investigate the consequence of overriding uniparental inheritance, we generated mice containing an admixture (heteroplasmy) of NZB and 129S6 mtDNAs in the presence of a congenic C57BL/6J nuclear background. Analysis of the segregation of the two(More)
Mouse period1 (mPer1) and mPer2 are mammalian homologs of the Drosophila clock gene period that show robust oscillation in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the mammalian master clock, and have been implicated as essential components of the core clock mechanism. Gene-targeting studies have demonstrated that mPer2 plays a dominant function in behavioral rhythm(More)
The CS mouse is a mutant strain which displays spontaneous splitting in the circadian locomotor rhythm under continuous darkness. To clarify whether the rhythm splitting occurs in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) where the mammalian circadian clock is located, the circadian rhythmicities of mammalian clock genes, mPer1, mBMAL1 and mClock, were examined in(More)
The present study addresses the role of the circadian system in day-night changes of respiratory functions in the mouse. In all airway tissues investigated (i.e., larynx, trachea, bronchus, and lung), we observed clear rhythmic expression of the Per1, Per2, Bmal1, and Clock core oscillator genes (the latter two genes oscillating in antiphase with the Per(More)
The pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 1 (PHLPP1) differentially attenuates Akt, PKC, and ERK1/2 signaling, thereby controlling the duration and amplitude of responses evoked by these kinases. PHLPP1 is expressed in the mammalian central clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, where it oscillates in a circadian fashion. To(More)