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Light is a powerful synchronizer of the circadian rhythms, and bright light therapy is known to improve metabolic and hormonal status of circadian rhythm sleep disorders, although its mechanism is poorly understood. In the present study, we revealed that light induces gene expression in the adrenal gland via the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)-sympathetic(More)
White adipocytes are unique in that they contain large unilocular lipid droplets that occupy most of the cytoplasm. To identify genes involved in the maintenance of mature adipocytes, we expressed dominant-negative PPARgamma in 3T3-L1 cells and performed a microarray screen. The fat-specific protein of 27 kDa (FSP27) was strongly downregulated in this(More)
Chronic treatment of methamphetamine (MAP) in rats desynchronized the locomotor activity rhythm from the light-dark cycle. When the activity rhythm was completely phase-reversed with respect to a light dark-cycle, 24 h profiles were examined for the clock gene (rPer1, rPer2, rBMAL1, rClock) expressions in several brain structures by in situ hybridization,(More)
Circadian rhythms govern a wide variety of physiological and metabolic functions in almost all organisms. These are controlled by the circadian clock machinery, which is mostly based on transcriptional-translational feedback loops. Importantly, 10-15% of the mammalian transcripts oscillate in a circadian manner. The complex program of gene expression that(More)
Circadian expression, light-responsiveness and localization of clock genes, rPer1 and rPer2, were examined in the rat retina under constant darkness. A significant circadian variation was detected in rPer2 transcript levels with a peak at ZT14, but not in the rPer1. A light pulse given after constant darkness of 3 days increased both rPer1 and rPer2(More)
It is well established that the Clock gene is essential for expressing circadian activity rhythms in mammals under constant darkness. The Clock gene product is a positive component of a molecular feedback loop which is assumed to generate the circadian rhythm. On the other hand, chronic treatment of methamphetamine (MAP) induces locomotor activity rhythm in(More)
Effects of forced sleep-wake schedules with and without physical exercise were examined on the human circadian pacemaker under dim light conditions. Subjects spent 15 days in an isolation facility separately without knowing the time of day and followed a forced sleep-wake schedule of a 23 h 40-min period for 12 cycles, and physical exercise was imposed(More)
Maternal inheritance of mtDNA is the rule in most animals, but the reasons for this pattern remain unclear. To investigate the consequence of overriding uniparental inheritance, we generated mice containing an admixture (heteroplasmy) of NZB and 129S6 mtDNAs in the presence of a congenic C57BL/6J nuclear background. Analysis of the segregation of the two(More)
CS mice exhibit a spontaneous splitting in the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity under constant darkness, suggesting that they contain two weakly coupled oscillators in the circadian clock system regulating locomotor activity rhythm. In order to clarify whether the two oscillators are located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a site of the master(More)
Mouse period1 (mPer1) and mPer2 are mammalian homologs of the Drosophila clock gene period that show robust oscillation in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the mammalian master clock, and have been implicated as essential components of the core clock mechanism. Gene-targeting studies have demonstrated that mPer2 plays a dominant function in behavioral rhythm(More)