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It remains to be clarified how many classes of GABAergic nonpyramidal cells exist in the cortical circuit. We have divided GABA cells in the rat frontal cortex into 3 groups, based on their firing characteristics: fast-spiking (FS) cells, late-spiking (LS) cells, and non-FS cells. Expression of calcium-binding proteins and peptides could be shown in(More)
Salinity stress enhances sugar accumulation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, the transport of carbohydrates into tomato fruits and the regulation of starch synthesis during fruit development in tomato plants cv. 'Micro-Tom' exposed to high levels of salinity stress were examined. Growth with(More)
Microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B), one of the microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), is a major component of the neuronal cytoskeleton. It is expressed at high levels in immature neurons during growth of their axons, which indicates that it plays a crucial role in neuronal morphogenesis and neurite extension. To better define the role of MAP1B in(More)
In vivo imaging with two-photon microscopy is becoming an indispensable technique to investigate cellular and subcellular phenomenon in living tissues including the central nervous system. This microscopy enables to image dynamics of molecules, morphology, and excitability with minimal invasion to tissues. Microglia are residual immune-responsive cells in(More)
We have cloned two novel C-terminal motor domain-type kinesin superfamily motor proteins (KIFCs) from mouse brain by utilizing a KIFC-specific consensus sequence. The first protein was the murine homologue of CHO2 antigen, a member of the kar3-type mitotic motor subfamily, and we designated this protein KIFC1. The other protein, KIFC2 (792 amino acids), is(More)
Fast inhibition in the cortex is gated primarily at GABAergic synapses formed by local interneurons onto postsynaptic targets. Although GABAergic inputs to the somata and axon initial segments of neocortical pyramidal neurons are associated with direct inhibition of action potential generation, the role of GABAergic inputs to distal dendritic segments,(More)
It has emerged recently that exosomes are potential carriers of pro-tumorigenic factors that participate in oncogenesis. However, whether oncogenic transcription factors are transduced by exosomes is unknown. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α) transcriptionally regulates numerous key aspects of tumor development and progression by promoting a more(More)
Inhibitory interneurons target precise membrane regions on pyramidal cells, but differences in their functional effects on somata, dendrites and spines remain unclear. We analyzed inhibitory synaptic events induced by cortical, fast-spiking (FS) basket cells which innervate dendritic shafts and spines as well as pyramidal cell somata. Serial electron(More)
BACKGROUND An episode of peripheral immune response may create long-lasting alterations in the neural network. Recent studies indicate a glial involvement in synaptic remodeling. Therefore it is postulated that both synaptic and glial changes could occur under the peripheral inflammation. RESULTS We tested this possibility by in vivo two-photon microscopy(More)
BACKGROUND Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is distinctive among head-and-neck cancers in its undifferentiated histopathology and highly metastatic character. We have recently investigated the involvement of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in NPC. In a previous study, we found a close association of expression of(More)