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It remains to be clarified how many classes of GABAergic nonpyramidal cells exist in the cortical circuit. We have divided GABA cells in the rat frontal cortex into 3 groups, based on their firing characteristics: fast-spiking (FS) cells, late-spiking (LS) cells, and non-FS cells. Expression of calcium-binding proteins and peptides could be shown in(More)
To understand the mechanisms of transport for organelles in the axon, we isolated and sequenced the cDNA encoding KIF4 from murine brain, and characterized the molecule biochemically and immunocytochemically. Complete amino acid sequence analysis of KIF4 and ultrastructural studies of KIF4 molecules expressed in Sf9 cells revealed that the protein contains(More)
1. Unitary inhibitory synaptic connections among stellate cells were studied in rat cerebellar slices. Presynaptic action potentials and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were simultaneously recorded by loose cell-attached and tight-seal whole-cell recording, respectively. 2. Several types of synaptic connections were distinguished on the basis of(More)
1. Cellular mechanisms underlying the enhancement by noradrenaline (NA) of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were studied at inhibitory synapses in the molecular layer of the cerebellum. IPSCs were obtained from stellate cells in rat cerebellar slices using tight-seal whole-cell recording. 2. Miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) were recorded in the presence of(More)
Salinity stress enhances sugar accumulation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, the transport of carbohydrates into tomato fruits and the regulation of starch synthesis during fruit development in tomato plants cv. 'Micro-Tom' exposed to high levels of salinity stress were examined. Growth with(More)
We have cloned two novel C-terminal motor domain-type kinesin superfamily motor proteins (KIFCs) from mouse brain by utilizing a KIFC-specific consensus sequence. The first protein was the murine homologue of CHO2 antigen, a member of the kar3-type mitotic motor subfamily, and we designated this protein KIFC1. The other protein, KIFC2 (792 amino acids), is(More)
Microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B), one of the microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), is a major component of the neuronal cytoskeleton. It is expressed at high levels in immature neurons during growth of their axons, which indicates that it plays a crucial role in neuronal morphogenesis and neurite extension. To better define the role of MAP1B in(More)
The purpose of the present work was to test the hypothesis that no more than one vesicle of transmitter can be liberated by an action potential at a single release site. Spontaneous and evoked IPSCs were recorded from interneurons in the molecular layer of cerebellar slices. Evoked IPSCs were obtained using either extracellular stimulation or paired(More)
In vivo imaging with two-photon microscopy is becoming an indispensable technique to investigate cellular and subcellular phenomenon in living tissues including the central nervous system. This microscopy enables to image dynamics of molecules, morphology, and excitability with minimal invasion to tissues. Microglia are residual immune-responsive cells in(More)
1. The modulation by noradrenaline (NA) of synapses among stellate cells was investigated in rat cerebellar slices by using presynaptic loose cell-attached recording and postsynaptic whole-cell recording. 2. NA increased the frequency of spontaneous IPSCs recorded from stellate cells without changing their mean amplitude. 3. NA increased the firing rate of(More)