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PURPOSE To determine the incidence of Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in adult patients using cytogenetics and immunohistochemstry. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Cytogenetic studies were prospectively done using tumor samples from 443 consecutive adult Japanese patients (ages 15-89 years) who underwent nephrectomy for RCC. TFE3 immunohistochemistry(More)
PURPOSE Glucocorticoids such as prednisone, hydrocortisone, and dexamethasone are known to provide some clinical benefit for patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms by which glucocorticoids affect hormone-refractory prostate cancer progression are not well established as yet. Our previous study has shown that(More)
Redox imbalance elevates the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in cells and promotes age-related diseases. Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are antioxidative enzymes that catalyze the degradation of ROS. There are three SOD isoforms: SOD1/CuZn-SOD, SOD2/Mn-SOD, and SOD3/EC-SOD. SOD2, which is localized in the mitochondria, is an essential enzyme required for(More)
Metastatic renal cell carcinomas (RCC) remain highly resistant to systemic therapy. RCCs are highly vascular tumors, which overproduce angiogenic peptides such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) even under normoxic conditions. A potential suggested role of antiangiogenic therapeutic strategies is the treatment of RCC by inhibiting VEGF production.(More)
Radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) patients frequently impairs their quality of life (QOL) due to urinary diversion. To improve their QOL, a bladder-sparing alternative strategy using chemoradiation has been developed. In bladder-sparing protocols, complete response (CR) to induction chemoradiation is a prerequisite for bladder(More)
p63, a homologue of the p53 gene, is considered to be essential for the normal development of stratified epithelia including urothelium. To examine possible roles of p63 in urothelial tumorigenesis, p63 expression was systematically examined in normal urothelium, low-grade papillary noninvasive (LPN) urothelial tumours, and high-grade or invasive(More)
Activin and follistatin (FS) appear to play a role in the development of the skin and its appendages, in the inflammatory process, angiogenesis, and in wound healing. Although there is information on the expression of activin subunits and receptors in fibroblasts and keratinocytes, there are no reports on the regulation of FS expression in these cells. In(More)
Activins are multifunctional growth and differentiation factors and stimulate FSH-beta gene expression and FSH secretion by the pituitary gonadotropes. Follistatins bind activin, resulting in the neutralization of activin bioactivity. The activin/follistatin system is present in the prostate tissue. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) plays an important role in(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study is to investigate the prognostic impact of C-reactive protein (CRP) on patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma and to develop a novel nomogram predicting survival. METHODS A total of 223 consecutive patients were treated at Tokyo Medical and Dental Hospital. A nomogram incorporating V was developed based on the(More)
To determine whether the mitochondria or cytoplasm produces superoxide during ischemia-reperfusion of the brain, we analyzed lucigenine-enhanced chemiluminescence emission in slices of brain tissue prepared from manganese-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD)-deficient (Sod2-deficient) and copper and zinc-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD)-deficient (Sod1-deficient)(More)