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Most leukocytes can roll along the walls of venules at low shear stress (1 dyn cm−2), but neutrophils have the ability to roll at tenfold higher shear stress in microvessels in vivo. The mechanisms involved in this shear-resistant rolling are known to involve cell flattening and pulling of long membrane tethers at the rear. Here we show that these long(More)
BACKGROUND Cholinergic arousal system plays an important role in the maintenance of consciousness. The authors investigated whether the intrabasalis injection of orexin-A or orexin-B and the electrically stimulated pedunculopontine tegmentum nuclei (PPTg: the origin of cholinergic ascending pathways) may alter acetylcholine efflux and(More)
UNLABELLED We studied the effects of intracerebroventricular injection of the novel neuropeptide orexin A on electroencephalogram (EEG) and autonomic nervous system activity in rats under isoflurane anesthesia. The administration of orexin A changed burst suppression patterns to arousal patterns on the EEG at 1.0 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration(More)
Although it is known that there are some pharmacological differences between the structurally similar barbiturates, the underlying mechanism of action remains unclear. We have compared the effects of thiopental, thiamylal and phenobarbital on both voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in rat hippocampal slices by(More)
The effects of hypoxia on hippocampal CA1 neurones in tissue slices of the rat brain were studied in vitro by intracellular recording. In response to superfusion of a hypoxic medium equilibrated with 95%N2-5% CO2, a majority of the neurones showed a transient depolarization followed by a hyperpolarization of 5-15 mV in amplitude and 4-12 min in duration.(More)
BACKGROUND The cholinergic arousal systems are known to critically regulate the state of consciousness. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of isoflurane on the inhibitory or excitatory neurotransmitters efflux in important nuclei within the cholinergic arousal system using in vivo intracerebral microdialysis. METHODS The efflux of(More)
UNLABELLED The reliability of preemptive analgesia is controversial. Its effectiveness may vary among anatomical areas or surgical types. We evaluated preemptive analgesia by epidural morphine in six surgery types in a randomized, double-blind manner. Pain intensity was rated using a visual analog scale, a verbal report, and a measurement of postsurgical(More)
BACKGROUND This study examined the effects of thiopental on intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) changes induced by membrane depolarization, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation, and ischemia. METHODS Experiments were performed in brain slices prepared from Wistar rats. [Ca2+]i measurements were taken on the CA1 pyramidal cell layer of the(More)
It has been suggested that heterosegmentally activated slow positive potentials (HSP), recorded from the spinal cord of rat and humans, are feedback inhibitory potentials. The present study was carried out to define ascending and descending spinal tracts and the sites of central nuclei involved in the production of these HSP, and the effects of ketamine on(More)
Evoked spinal cord potentials (SCPs) were recorded from the posterior epidural space (PES) at the cervical and lumbrosacral enlargements in response to electrical stimulation of the brachial plexus at Erb's point in 17 chronic pain patients. Erb's point stimulation produced slow positive potentials (heterosegmental slow positive potentials, HSPs) in the PES(More)