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This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and(More)
Only a small proportion of the mouse genome is transcribed into mature messenger RNA transcripts. There is an international collaborative effort to identify all full-length mRNA transcripts from the mouse, and to ensure that each is represented in a physical collection of clones. Here we report the manual annotation of 60,770 full-length mouse complementary(More)
The RIKEN Mouse Gene Encyclopaedia Project, a systematic approach to determining the full coding potential of the mouse genome, involves collection and sequencing of full-length complementary DNAs and physical mapping of the corresponding genes to the mouse genome. We organized an international functional annotation meeting (FANTOM) to annotate the first(More)
The p53 gene is frequently inactivated in human cancers. Here we have isolated a p53-inducible gene, p53R2, by using differential display to examine messenger RNAs in a cancer-derived human cell line carrying a highly regulated wild-type p53 expression system. p53R2 contains a p53-binding sequence in intron 1 and encodes a 351-amino-acid peptide with(More)
A membrane cytoskeletal protein, fodrin, is a substrate for a Ca2+-dependent protease, calpain. It remains unknown whether mu-calpain or m-calpain is involved in the proteolysis of either alpha- or beta-fodrin and in what subcellular localization during ischemia and reperfusion of the brain. To address these issues, we examined the distribution of fodrin(More)
Most leukocytes can roll along the walls of venules at low shear stress (1 dyn cm−2), but neutrophils have the ability to roll at tenfold higher shear stress in microvessels in vivo. The mechanisms involved in this shear-resistant rolling are known to involve cell flattening and pulling of long membrane tethers at the rear. Here we show that these long(More)
This paper describes a Japanese logographic character (kanji) frequency list, which is based on an analysis of the largest recently available corpus of Japanese words and characters. This corpus comprised a full year of morning and evening editions of a major newspaper, containing more than 23 million kanji characters and more than 4,000 different kanji(More)
BACKGROUND Cholinergic arousal system plays an important role in the maintenance of consciousness. The authors investigated whether the intrabasalis injection of orexin-A or orexin-B and the electrically stimulated pedunculopontine tegmentum nuclei (PPTg: the origin of cholinergic ascending pathways) may alter acetylcholine efflux and(More)
Viral infection has been considered to be a possible pathogenesis of vestibular neuronitis, and reactivation of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of the most likely causes. However, it remains unknown whether the human vestibular ganglia contain latent HSV. We examined 26 vestibular ganglia from autopsied adults in search of HSV type 1 (HSV-1). To(More)
UNLABELLED We studied the effects of intracerebroventricular injection of the novel neuropeptide orexin A on electroencephalogram (EEG) and autonomic nervous system activity in rats under isoflurane anesthesia. The administration of orexin A changed burst suppression patterns to arousal patterns on the EEG at 1.0 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration(More)