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Sodium-calcium exchange current was isolated in inside-out patches excised from guinea pig ventricular cells using the giant patch method. The outward exchange current decayed exponentially upon activation by cytoplasmic sodium (sodium-dependent inactivation). The kinetics and mechanism of the inactivation were studied. (a) The rate of inactivation and the(More)
Dynamic responses of cardiac sodium-calcium exchange current to changes of cytoplasmic calcium and MgATP were monitored and analyzed in giant membrane patches excised from guinea pig myocytes. Secondary dependencies of exchange current on cytoplasmic calcium are accounted for in terms of two mechanisms: (a) The sodium-dependent inactivation process, termed(More)
The sarcolemmal Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger is regulated by intracellular Ca2+ at a high affinity Ca2+ binding site separate from the Ca2+ transport site. Previous data have suggested that the Ca2+ regulatory site is located on the large intracellular loop of the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange protein, and we have identified a high-affinity 45Ca2+ binding domain on this loop(More)
We have analyzed the regulatory properties of the wild-type cardiac Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using the giant excised patch technique. The exchanger is activated by cytoplasmic application of chymotrypsin and exhibits a number of properties that can be changed or abolished by chymotrypsin treatment, including cytoplasmic(More)
We have examined the role of conserved regions and acidic or basic residues located in the putative transmembrane segments of the cardiac sarcolemmal Na+-Ca2+ exchanger by site-directed mutagenesis. The alpha-1 and alpha-2 repeats are transmembrane regions of internal similarity, which are highly conserved among Na+-Ca2+ exchangers. We find that Na+-Ca2+(More)
The mean sarcomere length (SL) of guinea-pig cardiac myocytes was recorded simultaneously with the whole-cell current under voltage-clamp conditions. After blocking both sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and L-type Ca(2+) channels with ryanodine, cyclopiazonic acid and nicardipine, strong depolarizing pulses induced only the tonic component of SL shortening(More)
The Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger is an important regulator of cellular Ca2+ levels, and one isoform of this transporter, NCX1, has been cloned previously (Nicoll, D.A., Longoni, S., and Philipson, K.D. (1990) Science 250, 562-565). We now report the cloning of a second isoform (NCX2) of the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger which was present in a rat brain cDNA library. NCX2 is(More)
The tumor suppressor function of PTEN is strongly linked to its ability to dephosphorylate phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5 trisphosphate and, thereby, control cell growth, survival, and migration. However, the mechanism of action of PTEN in living cells is largely unexplored. Here we use single-molecule TIRF microscopy in living cells to reveal that the enzyme(More)
1. To identify the Na+- or Ca2+-induced current as Na+-Ca2+ exchange current and to determine the stoichiometry of the Na+-Ca2+ exchange, the reversal potential was measured in a wide range of external Na+ [( Na+]o) or Ca2+ [( Ca2+]o) concentrations. The Na+- or Ca2+-induced current was recorded in single ventricular cells enzymatically dispersed from(More)
The Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger from Drosophila was expressed in Xenopus and characterized electrophysiologically using the giant excised patch technique. This protein, termed Calx, shares 49% amino acid identity to the canine cardiac Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger, NCX1. Calx exhibits properties similar to previously characterized Na(+)-Ca2+ exchangers including(More)