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The subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a pivotal role in controlling the activity of both the external and internal segments of the globus pallidus (GPe and GPi, respectively). Both nuclei receive monosynaptic excitatory and disynaptic GPe-mediated inhibitory inputs from the STN. Thus, we investigated the balance of these antagonistic inputs that may determine(More)
Serotonin (5-HT)-containing neurons in the dorsal raphe project to the external and internal segments of the pallidum, which express several 5-HT receptors. Although the involvement of 5-HT in basal ganglia movement control has been suggested, little is known about the physiological action of 5-HT in the pallidum. Previous anatomical studies and in vitro(More)
The internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) receives motor-related cortical signals mainly through the striatum, the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN). The GPi sends its outputs outside the basal ganglia and plays a key role in motor control. Extracellular unit recordings were performed in awake monkeys to(More)
Local injection of mu-opioid receptor specific neurotoxin, dermorphin-saporin, into the striatum resulted in selective degeneration of striatal neurons in the patch compartment. We analyzed subsequent anterograde degeneration of axons and terminals at light and electron microscopic level. Light microscopic examination after silver impregnation method(More)
Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by sustained or repetitive involuntary muscle contractions and abnormal postures. To understand the pathophysiology of dystonia, neurophysiological analyses were performed on hyperkinetic transgenic mice generated as a model of DYT1 dystonia. Abnormal muscle activity, such as coactivation of agonist and(More)
Topographic distribution of motoneurons innervating hand muscles through the median (Mn), ulnar (Ul), or radial (Rd) nerves was examined using a retrograde multiple-labeling technique in the macaque monkey. The Mn and Ul motoneurons, i.e. flexor motoneurons, were distributed from C6 to T2 and from C7 to T2 segments of the spinal cord, respectively, while(More)
Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by sustained or repetitive involuntary muscle contractions and abnormal postures. In the present article, we will introduce our recent electrophysiological studies in hyperkinetic transgenic mice generated as a model of DYT1 dystonia and in a human cervical dystonia patient, and discuss the pathophysiology(More)
The striatum and subthalamic nucleus (STN) are the input stations of the basal ganglia and receive excitatory afferents from the cerebral cortex. The basal ganglia control voluntary movements through three parallel pathways mediated by the input stations: the hyperdirect pathway, which conveys direct cortical inputs to the substantia nigra pars reticulata(More)
The external and internal segments of the pallidum (GPe and GPi) receive heavy GABAergic innervations from the neostriatum, an input nucleus of the basal ganglia. The GPe neurons provide another major GABAergic innervation to the GPe itself and GPi. Although these GABAergic inputs are considered to play key roles in controlling the level and pattern of(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS), applying high-frequency electrical stimulation to deep brain structures, has now provided an effective therapeutic option for treatment of various neurological and psychiatric disorders. DBS targeting the internal segment of the globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and thalamus is used to treat symptoms of movement disorders,(More)