Learn More
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a pivotal role in controlling the activity of both the external and internal segments of the globus pallidus (GPe and GPi, respectively). Both nuclei receive monosynaptic excitatory and disynaptic GPe-mediated inhibitory inputs from the STN. Thus, we investigated the balance of these antagonistic inputs that may determine(More)
Serotonin (5-HT)-containing neurons in the dorsal raphe project to the external and internal segments of the pallidum, which express several 5-HT receptors. Although the involvement of 5-HT in basal ganglia movement control has been suggested, little is known about the physiological action of 5-HT in the pallidum. Previous anatomical studies and in vitro(More)
The internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) receives motor-related cortical signals mainly through the striatum, the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN). The GPi sends its outputs outside the basal ganglia and plays a key role in motor control. Extracellular unit recordings were performed in awake monkeys to(More)
Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by sustained or repetitive involuntary muscle contractions and abnormal postures. To understand the pathophysiology of dystonia, neurophysiological analyses were performed on hyperkinetic transgenic mice generated as a model of DYT1 dystonia. Abnormal muscle activity, such as coactivation of agonist and(More)
Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by sustained or repetitive involuntary muscle contractions and abnormal postures. In the present article, we will introduce our recent electrophysiological studies in hyperkinetic transgenic mice generated as a model of DYT1 dystonia and in a human cervical dystonia patient, and discuss the pathophysiology(More)
The striatum and subthalamic nucleus (STN) are the input stations of the basal ganglia and receive excitatory afferents from the cerebral cortex. The basal ganglia control voluntary movements through three parallel pathways mediated by the input stations: the hyperdirect pathway, which conveys direct cortical inputs to the substantia nigra pars reticulata(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS), applying high-frequency electrical stimulation to deep brain structures, has now provided an effective therapeutic option for treatment of various neurological and psychiatric disorders. DBS targeting the internal segment of the globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and thalamus is used to treat symptoms of movement disorders,(More)
To elucidate the mechanism of deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi), neuronal activity of the GPi and the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe) was examined during local electrical microstimulation in normal awake monkeys. Single-pulse stimulation of the GPi evoked brief inhibition in neighboring(More)
Applying high-frequency stimulation (HFS) to deep brain structure, known as deep brain stimulation (DBS), has now been recognized an effective therapeutic option for a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders. DBS targeting the basal ganglia thalamo-cortical loop, especially the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi), subthalamic nucleus(More)
In the basal ganglia (BG), dopamine plays a pivotal role in motor control, and dopamine deficiency results in severe motor dysfunctions as seen in Parkinson's disease. According to the well-accepted model of the BG, dopamine activates striatal direct pathway neurons that directly project to the output nuclei of the BG through D1 receptors (D1Rs), whereas(More)