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Parkinson's disease (PD), one of the most common human neurodegenerative diseases, is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain. PD is a complex disorder with multiple genetic and environmental factors influencing disease risk. To identify susceptible genes for sporadic PD, we performed case-control(More)
In this study, we evaluated whether hepatic steatosis affects the viral response to interferon (IFN) and ribavirin combination therapy in Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Eighty CHC patients treated with IFN alpha-2b and ribavirin for 24 weeks were evaluated retrospectively. Liver biopsy specimens were assessed histopathologically, and(More)
A genetic association between the fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF20) gene and Parkinson's disease has been found by the pedigree disequilibrium test. This association, however, was not replicated by a case-control association study. In order to clarify the association between the FGF20 gene and Parkinson's disease, we attempted to replicate this(More)
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-containing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are known to be activated during physical or psychological stress, and play an important role as one of the central activators of integrated stress response. Physical exercise has also been suggested as one of the stressors activating CRH neurons in(More)
In alcoholic liver disease, ethanol-induced damage to sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) appears to be important in the progression of liver damage. However, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for protection of SECs against ethanol-induced injury. To elucidate the role of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), which is stored in platelets and may be(More)
Agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma have been shown to reduce tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced insulin resistance. On the other hand, sensitization of Kupffer cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and their production of TNF-alpha are critical for progression of alcoholic liver injury. This study was intended to(More)
Maladaptive plasticity at corticostriatal synapses plays an important role in the development of levodopa-induced dyskinesia. Recently, it has been shown that synaptic plasticity is closely linked to morphologic changes of dendritic spines. To evaluate morphologic changes of dendritic spines of two types of striatal medium spiny neurons, which project to(More)
BACKGROUND Bacterial translocation occurs after thermal injury in association with intestinal barrier loss. Recently, we found that sensitization of Kupffer cells involved gut-derived endotoxin; therefore, the purpose of this work was to study the mechanisms of sensitization of Kupffer cells in burn injury. METHODS Rats received a 30% body surface area(More)
We previously reported that viral antigen expression was markedly up-regulated by stimulation with extracellular Nef, similar to the effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and phorbol myristate acetate, in model cells for HIV-1 latency. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism of this novel Nef function. Flow cytometry revealed specific(More)
Modification with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is currently considered an important strategy for anti-cancer drug delivery, because PEGylated-nanoparticles would be effectively delivered to tumor tissue by enhanced permeation and retention effects. However, PEGylation suppresses the cellular uptake of nanoparticles (NPs) to target cells (known as the PEG(More)