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Parkinson's disease (PD), one of the most common human neurodegenerative diseases, is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain. PD is a complex disorder with multiple genetic and environmental factors influencing disease risk. To identify susceptible genes for sporadic PD, we performed case-control(More)
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-containing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are known to be activated during physical or psychological stress, and play an important role as one of the central activators of integrated stress response. Physical exercise has also been suggested as one of the stressors activating CRH neurons in(More)
A genetic association between the fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF20) gene and Parkinson's disease has been found by the pedigree disequilibrium test. This association, however, was not replicated by a case-control association study. In order to clarify the association between the FGF20 gene and Parkinson's disease, we attempted to replicate this(More)
Maladaptive plasticity at corticostriatal synapses plays an important role in the development of levodopa-induced dyskinesia. Recently, it has been shown that synaptic plasticity is closely linked to morphologic changes of dendritic spines. To evaluate morphologic changes of dendritic spines of two types of striatal medium spiny neurons, which project to(More)
Background noise (BGN) can affect performance of various tasks as a function of its intensity. Such effects may involve modulation of arousal level during task performance, though the neural mechanisms responsible for the intensity-dependence of effects of BGN are still unclear in detail. We examined the effects of BGN (white noise) of various intensities(More)
The neural mechanism by which negative air ions (NAI) mediate the regulation of autonomic nervous system activity is still unknown. We examined the effects of NAI on physiological responses, such as blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) as well as neuronal activity, in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN),(More)
The current study disentangled two different effects of wealth on psychological tendency toward independence: one is an effect exerted at the individual level (i.e., being rich) and the other one is a contextual effect (i.e., being surrounded by rich individuals). Past research has found a stronger tendency toward independence among people in economically(More)
As enormous amount of electronic documents on the Web have been increasing, the necessity of automatic summarization has also been increasing to help people grasp the essential points of the documents. Many summa-rization techniques dealing with single document and multi-documents have been studied. However, due to the increase of the documents which report(More)
  • Ronald B Mukai, Kazuyoshi Luftig, Satoko Ikuta, Haruko Suzuki, Tetsu Horikoshi, Kazuyoshi Ikuta +9 others
  • 2000
INTRODUCTION Proteases (PRs) function critically in a wide variety of cellular and viral processes by exhibiting limited substrate site specificity on their respective precursor proteins. For cellular systems, PRs like chymotrypsin, plasmin, and pepsin are produced after such cleavages, while for viral systems structural proteins as well as enzymes are(More)
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