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The genetic code, formerly thought to be frozen, is now known to be in a state of evolution. This was first shown in 1979 by Barrell et al. (G. Barrell, A. T. Bankier, and J. Drouin, Nature [London] 282:189-194, 1979), who found that the universal codons AUA (isoleucine) and UGA (stop) coded for methionine and tryptophan, respectively, in human(More)
The genomic guanine and cytosine (G + C) content of eubacteria is related to their phylogeny. The G + C content of various parts of the genome (protein genes, stable RNA genes, and spacers) reveals a positive linear correlation with the G + C content of their genomic DNA. However, the plotted correlation slopes differ among various parts of the genome or(More)
A phylogenetic tree of most of the major groups of organisms has been constructed from the 352 5S ribosomal RNA sequences now available. The tree suggests that there are several major groups of eubacteria that diverged during the early stages of their evolution. Metabacteria (= archaebacteria) and eukaryotes separated after the emergence of eubacteria.(More)
UGA is a nonsense or termination (opal) codon throughout prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, mitochondria use not only UGG but also UGA as a tryptophan codon. Here, we show that UGA also codes for tryptophan in Mycoplasma capricolum, a wall-less bacterium having a genome only 20-25% the size of the Escherichia coli genome. This conclusion is based on the(More)
Sphingosine kinase (SphK) 1 and 2 phosphorylate sphingosine to generate sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a pluripotent lipophilic mediator implicated in a variety of cellular events. Here we show that the activity of β-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1), the rate-limiting enzyme for amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) production, is modulated by S1P in mouse neurons.(More)
Neuroligin (NLG), a postsynaptic adhesion molecule, is involved in the formation of synapses by binding to a cognate presynaptic ligand, neurexin. Here we report that neuroligin-1 (NLG1) undergoes ectodomain shedding at the juxtamembrane stalk region to generate a secreted form of NLG1 and a membrane-tethered C-terminal fragment (CTF) in adult rat brains in(More)
We showed previously that cells expressing wild-type (WT) beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) or coexpressing WTAPP and WT presenilin (PS) 1/2 produced APP intracellular domains (AICD) 49-99 and 50-99, with the latter predominating. On the other hand, the cells expressing mutant (MT) APP or coexpressing WTAPP and MTPS1/2 produced a greater proportion of(More)
Secondary structure models of 54 5S RNA species are constructed based on the comparative analyses of their primary structure. All 5S RNAs examined have essentially the same secondary structure. However, there are revealing characteristic differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic types. The prokaryotic 5S RNAs may be further classified into two types,(More)
It has been reported that CUG, a universal leucine codon, is read as serine in an asporogenic yeast, Candida cylindracea. The distribution of this non-universal genetic code in various yeast species was studied using an in vitro translation assay system with a synthetic messenger RNA containing CUG codons in-frame. It was found that CUG is used as a serine(More)