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Our recent work on the gene structures for human salivary (S-type) cystatins [Saitoh, E. et al. (1987) Gene 61, 329-338] has suggested that the structures of cystatins which we determined previously at the protein level lack N-terminal peptide portions of the full-sized intact forms. In the present study, attempts were made to isolate full-sized S-type(More)
A low-molecular-weight acidic protein was isolated from human whole saliva by DE32 column chromatography and designated as SAP-1. The amino acid sequence was determined by conventional methods to be (sequence in text). The protein consisted of 113 residues and the calculated molecular weight was 12,552. Computer analysis revealed the presence of 54%(More)
An acidic protein of human saliva, which we named SAP-1 previously, is now shown to be an inhibitor of several cysteine proteinases. The protein inhibited papain and ficin strongly, and stem bromelain and bovine cathepsin C partially. However, it did not inhibit either porcine cathepsin B or clostripain. The mode of the inhibition of papain was found to be(More)
Three genes from the human cystatin gene family have been isolated from a bacteriophage lambda library containing Hind III digests of human genomic DNA. The cloned genes were identified with three DNA probes each containing exon 1, exon 2 and exon 3 of the CST1 gene for cystatin SN. The genes, which we name CST2B, CST4, and CST5, are 6.8 kb, 5.4 kb and 12.5(More)
The fourth gene from the human cystatin gene family of salivary-type cysteine-proteinase inhibitors has been isolated and partially characterized by DNA analysis. The gene, which we name CST3, codes for human cystatin C, and has the same organization as the CST1 gene for cystatin SN and the CST2 gene for cystatin SA. Southern analysis of EcoR I digested(More)
A new cysteine proteinase inhibitor, cystatin SN, was purified from human whole saliva by chromatography with DE32, Sephacryl S200, and CM-Sepharose CL6B. Cystatin SN is immunologically related to cystatin S and both inhibitors have a similar molecular mass of about 13 kDa. The new inhibitor, however, was clearly distinguished from cystatin S by its much(More)
A cysteine proteinase inhibitor (designated as cystatin SA) was isolated from human whole saliva by procedures including chromatography on DE 32 and DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B. The amino acid sequence determined by conventional methods showed sequence homology of 90 and 87% as compared with the sequences of cystatin S and cystatin SN, respectively, both of which(More)
The synthesis of human cystatins of family II is controlled by a multigene family having at least 7 members that are localized on chromosome 20, the cystatin gene family. Proteolytic degradation and phosphorylation of the gene products give rise to heterogeneity and multiplicity of cystatins in human saliva. These cysteine proteinase inhibitors, as well as(More)