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The circadian rhythms in mammals are regulated by a pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. Four clock-gene families have been found to be involved in a transcription-translation feedback loop that generates the circadian rhythm at the intracellular level. The proteins Clock and Bmal1 form a heterodimer which activates the(More)
The pattern of circadian behavioral rhythms is photoperiod-dependent, highlighted by the conservation of a phase relation between the behavioral rhythm and photoperiod. A model of two separate, but mutually coupled, circadian oscillators has been proposed to explain photoperiodic responses of behavioral rhythm in nocturnal rodents: an evening oscillator,(More)
In the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus slice culture, circadian rhythms in the release of arginine vasopressin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide were measured simultaneously and longitudinally. The phase relationship between the two peptide rhythms was relatively constant in the culture without a treatment of antimitotic drugs but became diverse by an(More)
Chronic treatment of methamphetamine (MAP) in rats desynchronized the locomotor activity rhythm from the light-dark cycle. When the activity rhythm was completely phase-reversed with respect to a light dark-cycle, 24 h profiles were examined for the clock gene (rPer1, rPer2, rBMAL1, rClock) expressions in several brain structures by in situ hybridization,(More)
Episodes of acute gastroenteritis in prospectively followed children between 2 months and 2 years of age were examined for rotaviruses, enteric adenoviruses, astroviruses, and human caliciviruses, including both Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs) and Sapporo-like viruses (SLVs), using PCR and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assays. A virus was identified in 60%(More)
DEC1 suppresses CLOCK/BMAL1-enhanced promoter activity, but its role in the circadian system of mammals remains unclear. Here we examined the effect of Dec1 overexpression or deficiency on circadian gene expression triggered with 50% serum. Overexpression of Dec1 delayed the phase of clock genes such as Dec1, Dec2, Per1, and Dbp that contain E boxes in(More)
The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor DEC1 is expressed in a circadian manner in the suprachiasmatic nucleus where it seems to play a role in regulating the mammalian circadian rhythm by suppressing the CLOCK/BMAL1-activated promoter. The interaction of DEC1 with BMAL1 has been suggested as one of the molecular mechanisms of the suppression(More)
Detection of individual body time (BT) via a single-time-point assay has been a longstanding unfulfilled dream in medicine, because BT information can be exploited to maximize potency and minimize toxicity during drug administration and thus will enable highly optimized medication. To achieve this dream, we created a "molecular timetable" composed of >100(More)
Morphologically distinct caliciviruses of human origin were first found in stools of children with gastroenteritis in 1976. Sapporo virus, or human calicivirus Sapporo, with typical surface morphology was first detected during a gastroenteritis outbreak in a home for infants in Sapporo, Japan, in 1977. Since then, morphologically and antigenically identical(More)
In the present study, we show that melatonin induces the expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS), the rate-limiting enzyme of glutathione (GSH) synthesis, in ECV304 human vascular endothelial cells. One micromolar melatonin induced the expression of gamma-GCS mRNA followed by an increase in the concentration of GSH with a peak at 24 h.(More)