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The development of the brain requires the exquisite coordination of progenitor proliferation and differentiation to achieve complex circuit assembly. It has been suggested that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) acts as an integrating molecule for multiple proliferation and differentiation signals because of its essential role in the RTK, Wnt and Shh(More)
Dysregulation of the protein kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) has been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. GSK-3 protein expression and kinase activity are elevated in diabetes, while selective GSK-3 inhibitors have shown promise as modulators of glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. There are two GSK-3 isoforms in(More)
Arising from C. J. Phiel, C. A. Wilson, V. M.-Y. Lee & P. S. Klein 423, 435-439 (2003)A major unresolved issue in Alzheimer's disease is identifying the mechanisms that regulate proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP)-glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) isozymes are thought to be important in this regulation. Phiel et al. proposed that(More)
Recent studies have identified disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) as a strong genetic risk factor associated with schizophrenia. Previously, we have reported that a mutation in the second exon of the DISC1 gene [leucine to proline at amino acid position 100, L100P] leads to the development of schizophrenia-related behaviors in mice. Glycogen synthase(More)
23 Dysregulation of the protein kinase, glycogen synthase kinase–3 (GSK-3), has been 24 implicated in the development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. GSK-3 protein expression 25 and kinase activity are elevated in diabetes, while selective GSK-3 inhibitors have shown 26 promise as modulators of glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. There are two 27 GSK-3(More)
Despite treatment with agents that enhance beta-cell function and insulin action, reduction in beta-cell mass is relentless in patients with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is characterized by impaired signaling through the insulin/insulin receptor/insulin receptor substrate/PI-3K/Akt pathway, leading to elevation of(More)
BACKGROUND Microarray studies in cancer compare expression levels between two or more sample groups on thousands of genes. Data analysis follows a population-level approach (e.g., comparison of sample means) to identify differentially expressed genes. This leads to the discovery of 'population-level' markers, i.e., genes with the expression patterns A > B(More)
BACKGROUND Aberrant activation NF-kappaB has been proposed as a mechanism of drug resistance in pancreatic cancer. Recently, inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 has been shown to exert anti-tumor effects on pancreatic cancer cells by suppressing NF-kappaB. Consequently, we investigated whether inhibition of GSK-3 sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatic expression of several gene products involved in glucose metabolism, including phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), is rapidly and completely inhibited by insulin. This inhibition is mediated through the regulation of a DNA element present in(More)
BACKGROUND Over-activity and elevated expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. Administration of specific GSK-3 inhibitors to diabetic or obese rodent models improves glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity. However, due to the indiscriminatory nature of these(More)