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Task-oriented repetitive movements can improve motor performance in patients with neurological or orthopaedic lesions. The application of robotics and automation technology can serve to assist, enhance, evaluate, and document neurological and orthopedic rehabilitation. This paper deals with the application of "patient-cooperative" techniques to robot-aided(More)
The aim of this article is to introduce the robotic orthosis Lokomat, developed to automate treadmill training rehabilitation of locomotion for spinal cord injured and stroke patients, to the Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) and Neuromodulation research communities, and to report on our newly conducted research. We first illustrate the primary use of(More)
Whole nerve cuff electrodes can record an electric signal generated by the superposition of single fiber action potentials (AP's). Using a simple stochastic model for the superposition of AP's, the statistical properties of nerve cuff signals are mathematically derived in this study. Consequences of common signal processing methods like rectification and(More)
This paper presents newly developed algorithms for automatic adaptation of motion for a robotic rehabilitation device. The algorithms adapt the gait pattern of patients that walk on a treadmill. Three different algorithms were developed. The first one is based on inverse dynamics and online minimization of the human-machine interaction torque. The second(More)
We derive, based on an analytical nerve membrane model and optimal control theory of dynamical systems, an energy-optimal stimulation current waveform for electrical excitation of nerve fibers. Optimal stimulation waveforms for nonleaky and leaky membranes are calculated. The case with a leaky membrane is a realistic case. Finally, we compare the waveforms(More)
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) enables restoration of movement in individuals with spinal cord injury. FES-based devices use electric current pulses to stimulate and excite the intact peripheral nerves. They produce muscle contractions, generate joint torques, and thus, joint movements. Since the underlying neuromuscular-skeletal system is highly(More)
Electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves can be used to cause muscle contraction, to activate reflexes, and to modulate some functions of the central nervous system (neuromodulation). If applied to the spinal cord or nerves controlling the lower urinary tract, electrical stimulation can produce bladder or sphincter contraction, produce micturition, and(More)
This paper describes a neuro-musculo-skeletal model of the human lower body which has been developed with the aim of studying the effects of spinal cord injury on locomotor abilities. The model represents spinal neural control modules corresponding to central pattern generators, muscle spindle based reflex pathways, golgi tendon organ based pathways and(More)
PURPOSE Electrical stimulation of appropriate lower urinary tract (LUT) nerves may be used in bladder dysfunction to achieve continence and abolish hyper-reflexic detrusor contractions. It can also be used for consequent emptying of the bladder. To control the time course of the described functional phases, knowledge of bladder sensory information is(More)
Detection of bladder volume and hyperreflexive bladder contractions would be useful in individuals with overactive bladders. We sought to determine whether bladder filling and/or reflex bladder contractions could be detected by electrical recording from the sacral nerve roots, and whether bladder contractions could be inhibited by stimulation of sacral(More)