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Task-oriented repetitive movements can improve motor performance in patients with neurological or orthopaedic lesions. The application of robotics and automation technology can serve to assist, enhance, evaluate, and document neurological and orthopedic rehabilitation. This paper deals with the application of "patient-cooperative" techniques to robot-aided(More)
—This paper presents newly developed algorithms for automatic adaptation of motion for a robotic rehabilitation device. The algorithms adapt the gait pattern of patients that walk on a treadmill. Three different algorithms were developed. The first one is based on inverse dynamics and online minimization of the human–machine interaction torque. The second(More)
We derive, based on an analytical nerve membrane model and optimal control theory of dynamical systems, an energy-optimal stimulation current waveform for electrical excitation of nerve fibers. Optimal stimulation waveforms for nonleaky and leaky membranes are calculated. The case with a leaky membrane is a realistic case. Finally, we compare the waveforms(More)
Whole nerve cuff electrodes can record an electric signal generated by the superposition of single fiber action potentials (AP's). Using a simple stochastic model for the superposition of AP's, the statistical properties of nerve cuff signals are mathematically derived in this study. Consequences of common signal processing methods like rectification and(More)
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) enables restoration of movement in individuals with spinal cord injury. FES-based devices use electric current pulses to stimulate and excite the intact peripheral nerves. They produce muscle contractions, generate joint torques, and thus, joint movements. Since the underlying neuromuscular-skeletal system is highly(More)
The aim of this article is to introduce the robotic orthosis Lokomat, developed to automate treadmill training rehabilitation of locomotion for spinal cord injured and stroke patients, to the Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) and Neuromodulation research communities, and to report on our newly conducted research. We first illustrate the primary use of(More)
This paper describes a neuro-musculo-skeletal model of the human lower body which has been developed with the aim of studying the effects of spinal cord injury on locomotor abilities. The model represents spinal neural control modules corresponding to central pattern generators, muscle spindle based reflex pathways, golgi tendon organ based pathways and(More)
STUDY DESIGN Clinical study on six spinal cord-injured subjects. The performance of two automatic gait-pattern adaptation algorithms for automated treadmill training rehabilitation of locomotion (called DJATA1 and DJATA2) was tested and compared in this study. OBJECTIVES To test the performance of the two algorithms and to evaluate the corresponding(More)
Electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves can be used to cause muscle contraction, to activate reflexes, and to modulate some functions of the central nervous system (neuromodulation). If applied to the spinal cord or nerves controlling the lower urinary tract, electrical stimulation can produce bladder or sphincter contraction, produce micturition, and(More)
Electroneurographic recordings suffer from low signal to noise (S/N) ratios. The S/N ratio can be improved by different signal processing methods including optimal filtering. A method to design two types of optimal filters (Wiener and Matched filters) was developed for use with neurographic signals, and the calculated filters were applied to nerve cuff(More)