Saskia de Pee

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BACKGROUND Iron fortification of wheat flour is widely used as a strategy to combat iron deficiency. OBJECTIVE To review recent efficacy studies and update the guidelines for the iron fortification of wheat flour. METHODS Efficacy studies with a variety of iron-fortified foods were reviewed to determine the minimum daily amounts of additional iron that(More)
A global economic and financial crisis is engulfing the developing world, coming on top of high food and fuel prices. This paper assesses the impact of the crises on food consumption, nutrition, and health. Several methods were applied, including risk analysis using the cost of the food basket, assessment surveys, simulations, regression analysis using a(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the most effective method for analysing haemoglobin concentrations in large surveys in remote areas, and to compare two methods (indirect cyanmethaemoglobin and HemoCue) with the conventional method (direct cyanmethaemoglobin). METHODS Samples of venous and capillary blood from 121 mothers in Indonesia were compared using all three(More)
Two biochemical indicators are currently recommended for determining whether vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a public health problem: serum retinol and serum retinol-binding protein (RBP). After consideration of 40 data sets and the original rationale for previously proposed cut-offs, a cut-off for serum retinol concentration was proposed at <0.70 micro mol/L(More)
BACKGROUND In-home fortification of complementary foods with micronutrient powders containing low amounts of iron may be potentially safer than powders containing high amounts of iron. However, low iron doses have little nutritional effect, unless iron absorption is high. OBJECTIVE The objective was to maximize iron absorption from a low-iron(More)
BACKGROUND Although undernutrition and communicable diseases dominate the current disease burden in resource-poor countries, the prevalence of diet related chronic diseases is increasing. This paper explores current trends of under- and overweight in Bangladeshi women. METHOD Nationally representative data on reproductive age women from rural Bangladesh(More)
BACKGROUND Many developing countries now face the double burden of malnutrition, defined as the coexistence of a stunted child and overweight mother within the same household. OBJECTIVE This study sought to estimate the prevalence of the double burden of malnutrition and to identify associated maternal, child, and household characteristics in rural(More)
In Bangladesh, rice prices are known to be positively associated with the prevalence of child underweight and inversely associated with household nongrain food expenditures, an indicator of dietary quality. The collection of reliable data on household expenditures is relatively time consuming and requires extensive training. Simple dietary diversity scores(More)
BACKGROUND HIV infection and malnutrition negatively reinforce each other. OBJECTIVE For program guidance, to review evidence on the relationship of HIV infection and malnutrition in adults in resource-limited settings. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Adequate nutritional status supports immunity and physical performance. Weight loss, caused by low dietary(More)
The objectives of this study were to quantify the effectiveness of dietary retinol sources, orange fruit, and dark-green, leafy vegetables in improving vitamin A status, and to test whether orange fruit is a better source of vitamin A and carotenoids than are leafy vegetables. Anemic schoolchildren aged 7-11 y (n = 238) in West Java, Indonesia, were(More)