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The small open reading frame tcdE is located between the genes tcdA and tcdB which encode toxin A (TcdA) and B (TcdB), respectively, within the pathogenicity locus of Clostridium difficile. Sequence and structure similarities to bacteriophage-encoded holins have led to the assumption that TcdE mediates the release of the toxins from C. difficile into the(More)
Coat complexes are important for cargo selection and vesicle formation. Recent evidence suggests that they may also be involved in vesicle targeting. Tethering factors, which form an initial bridge between vesicles and the target membrane, may bind to coat complexes. In this review, we ask whether these coat/tether interactions share some common mechanisms,(More)
COPI-coated vesicles mediate retrograde membrane traffic from the cis-Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in all eukaryotic cells. However, it is still unknown whether COPI vesicles fuse everywhere or at specific sites with the ER membrane. Taking advantage of the circumstance that the vesicles still carry their coat when they arrive at the ER, we have(More)
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