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Common navigational aids used by blind travelers during large-scale navigation divert attention away from important cues of the immediate environment (i.e., approaching vehicles). Sensory augmentation devices, relying on principles similar to those at work in sensory substitution, can potentially bypass the bottleneck of attention through sub-cognitive(More)
Rapid advances in neuroscience have sparked numerous efforts to study the neural correlate of consciousness. Prominent subjects include higher sensory area, distributed assemblies bound by synchronization of neuronal activity and neurons in specific cortical laminae. In contrast, it has been suggested that the quality of sensory awareness is determined by(More)
We argue that brains generate predictions only within the constraints of the action repertoire. This makes the computational complexity tractable and fosters a step-by-step parallel development of sensory and motor systems. Hence, it is more of a benefit than a literal constraint and may serve as a universal normative principle to understand sensorimotor(More)
The use of prescription medication to augment cognitive or affective function in healthy persons-or neuroenhancement-is increasing in adult and pediatric populations. In children and adolescents, neuroenhancement appears to be increasing in parallel to the rising rates of attention-deficit disorder diagnoses and stimulant medication prescriptions, and the(More)
" If we were to ask the question: 'What is human life's chief concern?' one of the answers we should receive would be: 'It is happiness.' How to gain, how to keep, how to recover happiness is in fact for most men at all times the secret motive of all they do, and of all they are willing to endure. " (William James, 1902). Enhancement is generally understood(More)
Theories of embodied cognition propose that perception is shaped by sensory stimuli and by the actions of the organism. Following sensorimotor contingency theory, the mastery of lawful relations between own behavior and resulting changes in sensory signals, called sensorimotor contingencies, is constitutive of conscious perception. Sensorimotor contingency(More)
The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses is rising. ADHD is closely linked to its treatment with medications such as methylphenidate and amphetamines, which have popular appeal as neuroenhancement drugs by persons without a neurological disorder. The three main reasons for the increase in ADHD medication demand,(More)
Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Sinnessignale, die vom Gürtel bereitgestellt werden, (1) verarbeitet werden und die Leistung in Orientierungsaufgaben verbessern, (2), wenn sie inkonsistent mit anderen sensorischen Signalen sind, zu variabler Leistung führen (3) mit dem vestibulären Nystagmus interagieren, und (4) bei der Hälfte der Versuchspersonen zu(More)
Contents 1. Introduction 2 2. Representations in Cognitive Science 3 2.1. The concept of representations: Main assumptions 4 2.2. How to come to content? 7 2.3. The connection to the external world: Grounding the representation 9 3. Competitive computational cognitive modeling formalisms 10 3.1. Symbolist traditional treatment of representations 10 3.2.(More)
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