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Impairment of insulin signaling in the brain has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. To test the hypothesis that neuronal insulin resistance contributes to defects in neuronal function, we have performed a detailed analysis of brain/neuron-specific insulin receptor knockout (NIRKO) mice. We find that NIRKO mice exhibit a complete loss of(More)
HLA-DM (DM) is a nonclassical MHC class II molecule that interacts with classical MHC II molecules in acidic compartments. During this association DM is supposed to catalyze the release of invariant chain (Ii)-derived CLIP peptides, as well as other peptides bound with low kinetic stability. Here we provide evidence that in lysosomal compartments of B cells(More)
HLA-DM (DM) plays a critical role in antigen presentation through major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. DM functions as a molecular chaperone by keeping class II molecules competent for antigenic peptide loading and serves as an editor by favoring presentation of high-stability peptides. Until now, DM has been thought to exert these(More)
For many years the crucial components involved in MHC class II mediated antigen presentation have been thought to be known: polymorphic MHC class II molecules, the monomorphic invariant chain (li) and a set of conventional proteases that cleave antigenic proteins thereby generating ligands able to associate with MHC class II molecules. However, in 1994 it(More)
During the past five years considerable progress has been made in the field of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted antigen presentation. Several observations made in mutant cell lines with a presentation defect led to the identification of a novel protein, the nonclassic MHC class II molecule human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DM. Cell(More)
Heterobifunctional (99m)Tc ligands are useful for antibody labeling using the precomplexation route. The aim of this work was to synthesize a ligand, which has sufficient chemical stability to be complexed with (99m)Tc without inactivating the reactive conjugation group. Using 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl N-(S-benzoylthioacetyl)glycylglycyl-p-aminobenzoate(More)
+ T-cells induce Th17-cell differentiation and expansion in patients with first clinical presentation of multiple sclerosis, S): Alemtuzumab for patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis after disease-modifying therapy: a randomised controlled phase 3 trial.(3)CR1 drives cytotoxic CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells into the brain of multiple sclerosis patients.(More)
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