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It is now about 20 years since we first wrote reviews about clathrin-independent endocytosis. The challenge at the time was to convince the reader about its existence. Then the suggestion came up that caveolae might be responsible for the uptake. However, clearly this could not be the case since a large fraction of the clathrin-independent uptake is(More)
The ErbB3 receptor is an important regulator of cell growth and carcinogenesis. Among breast cancer patients, up to 50-70% have ErbB3 overexpression and 20-30% show overexpressed or amplified ErbB2. ErbB3 has also been implicated in the development of resistance to several drugs used against cancers driven by ErbB1 or ErbB2. One of the main challenges in(More)
The binary C2 toxin from Clostridium botulinum mono-ADP-ribosylates G-actin in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. This modification leads to depolymerization of actin filaments accompanied by cell rounding within 3 h of incubation but does not immediately induce cell death. Here we investigated the long-term responses of mammalian cell lines (HeLa and Vero)(More)
The SpvB protein from Salmonella enterica was recently discovered as an actin-ADP-ribosylating toxin. SpvB is most likely delivered via a type-III secretion system into eukaryotic cells and does not have a binding/translocation component. This is in contrast to the family of binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxins from various Bacillus and Clostridium species.(More)
Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin is an ADP-ribosyltransferase, causing depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. The C2 toxin is a binary toxin consisting of the enzymatic subunit C2I and the binding subunit C2II. Proteolytical activation of the binding subunit triggers the formation of heptameric structures (C2IIa), which bind to(More)
The binary Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin consists of the binding/translocation component C2IIa and the separate enzyme component C2I, which mono-ADP-ribosylates actin in eukaryotic cells. Pore formation of C2IIa in early endosomal membranes facilitates translocation of unfolded C2I into the cytosol. We discovered earlier that translocation of C2I depends(More)
The flotillin proteins are localized in lipid domains at the plasma membrane as well as in intracellular compartments. In the present study, we examined the importance of flotillin-1 and flotillin-2 for the uptake and transport of the bacterial Shiga toxin (Stx) and the plant toxin ricin and we investigated whether toxin binding and uptake were associated(More)
The virulence factor SpvB is a crucial component for the intracellular growth and infection process of Salmonella enterica. The SpvB protein mediates the ADP-ribosylation of actin in infected cells and is assumed to be delivered directly from the engulfed bacteria into the host cell cytosol. Here we used the binary Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin as a(More)
Mono-ADP ribosylation of actin by bacterial toxins, such as Clostridium perfringens iota or Clostridium botulinum C2 toxins, results in rapid depolymerization of actin filaments and cell rounding. Here we report that treatment of African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells with iota toxin resulted in delayed caspase-dependent death. Unmodified actin did not(More)
Cell-to-cell spread is a fundamental step in the infection cycle of Listeria monocytogenes that strictly depends on the formation of bacteria-induced protrusions. Since Listeria actin tails in the protrusions are tightly associated with the plasma membrane, we hypothesised that membrane-cytoskeleton linkers would be required for initiating and sustaining(More)