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Exposure of Staphylococcus aureus to cell wall inhibitors induces massive overexpression of a number of genes, provided that the VraSR two-component sensory regulatory system is intact. Inactivation of vraS blocks this transcriptional response and also causes a drastic reduction in the levels of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and vancomycin. We used(More)
Tn551 inactivation has identified several determinants--fem or auxiliary genes--that, in addition to the mecA gene, are also critical for the expression of high-level and homogeneous resistance to methicillin. Genetic and/or biochemical analysis has shown that of the nearly dozen aux mutations described so far most are in genes involved in cell wall(More)
Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis are insecticidal PFTs (pore-forming toxins). In the present study, we show that two distinct functional pre-pores of Cry1Ab are formed after binding of the protoxin or the protease-activated toxin to the cadherin receptor, but before membrane insertion. Both pre-pores actively induce pore formation, although with(More)
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