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A type III secretion system (T3SS) in pathogenic Yersinia species functions to translocate Yop effectors, which modulate cytokine production and regulate cell death in macrophages. Distinct pathways of T3SS-dependent cell death and caspase-1 activation occur in Yersinia-infected macrophages. One pathway of cell death and caspase-1 activation in macrophages(More)
Pathogenic Yersinia species utilize a type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effectors called Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) into infected host cells. Previous studies demonstrated a role for effector Yops in the inhibition of caspase-1-mediated cell death and secretion of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in naïve macrophages infected with Yersinia(More)
Staphylococcus aureus is a significant human pathogen that is capable of infecting a wide range of host tissues. This bacterium is able to evade the host immune response by utilizing a repertoire of virulence factors. These factors are tightly regulated by various two-component systems (TCS) and transcription factors. Previous studies have suggested that(More)
Staphylococcus aureus overproduces a subset of immunomodulatory proteins known as the staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins (Ssls) under conditions of pore-mediated membrane stress. In this study we demonstrate that overproduction of Ssls during membrane stress is due to the impaired activation of the two-component module of the quorum-sensing accessory(More)
Yersinia outer protein J (YopJ) is a type III secretion system (T3SS) effector of pathogenic Yersinia (Yersinia pestis, Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis) that is secreted into host cells. YopJ inhibits survival response pathways in macrophages, causing cell death. Allelic variation of YopJ is responsible for differential cytotoxicity(More)
Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, uses a type III secretion injectisome to deliver Yop proteins into macrophages to counteract phagocytosis and induce apoptosis. Additionally, internalized Y. pestis can survive in the phagosomes of naïve or gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-activated macrophages by blocking vacuole acidification. The Y. pestis LcrV protein(More)
Female smokers have a faster decline in lung function with increasing age and overall develop a greater loss of lung function than male smokers. This raises the question of whether estrogen status in women affects susceptibility to cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung disease. Mouse models suggest that female mice are more susceptible than males to CS-induced(More)
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