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RATIONALE Animals trained to lick for a sucrose solution of a given incentive value that subsequently encounter an incentive downshift (i.e. 32-4% sucrose) display an exaggerated decrease in the amount consumed, relative to unshifted controls. This change has been classified as a successive negative contrast (SNC) effect. The emotional component to this(More)
We describe the development and assessment of a computer controlled wheelchair called the SMARTCHAIR. A shared control framework with different levels of autonomy allows the human operator to stay in complete control of the chair at each level while ensuring her safety. The framework incorporates deliberative motion plans or controllers, reactive behaviors,(More)
This material is posted here with permission of the IEEE. Such permission of the IEEE does not in any way imply IEEE endorsement of any of the University of Pennsylvania's products or services. Internal or personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for(More)
This material is posted here with permission of the IEEE. Such permission of the IEEE does not in any way imply IEEE endorsement of any of the University of Pennsylvania's products or services. Internal or personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for(More)
— We build on previous work [12], [14] on the development of a computer controlled wheelchair equipped with a suite of sensors and a novel interface for human-robot interaction. In this paper, we present experimental results and usability studies for the wheelchair. The architecture for human-robot interaction is hierarchical, with the lowest level(More)
Touchscreen technology has become pervasive in the consumer product arena over the last decade, offering some distinct advantages such as software reconfigurable interfaces and the removal of space consuming mice and keyboards. However, there are significant drawbacks to these devices that have limited their adoption by some users. Most notably, standard(More)
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