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Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a potent angiogenic inhibitor. Reduced PEDF levels are associated with diabetic retinopathy. However, the mechanism for the protective effects of PEDF against diabetic retinopathy (DR) is presently unclear. As inflammation plays a role in DR, the present study determined the effect of PEDF on inflammation. Western(More)
Diabetic retinopathy is a chronic low-grade inflammatory disease; however, the mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, we demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was activated in the retina in animal models of diabetes and oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Induction of ER stress by tunicamycin resulted in significantly increased(More)
OBJECTIVE Oxidative stress is a key pathogenic factor in diabetic retinopathy. We previously showed that lovastatin mitigates blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown in db/db mice. The purpose of this study is to determine the mechanisms underlying the salutary effects of lovastatin in diabetic retinopathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Expression of NADPH(More)
The current study measured extracellular fluid (ECF) levels of excitatory amino acids before and during the onset of thiamine deficiency-induced pathologic lesions. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with daily pyrithiamine (0.25 mg/kg i.p.) and a thiamine-deficient diet (PTD). Microdialysates were simultaneously collected from probes inserted acutely(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the primary intracellular organelle responsible for protein and lipid biosynthesis, protein folding and trafficking, calcium homeostasis, and several other vital processes in cell physiology. Disturbance in ER function results in ER stress and subsequent activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR(More)
PURPOSE Human amniotic membrane (HAM) transplantation is commonly used in corneal surface reconstruction and is known to inhibit neovascularization of this tissue. The purpose of the present study is to reveal the molecular basis underlying antiangiogenic activity of HAM. METHODS The effects of HAM protein on proliferation of vascular endothelial cells(More)
It has been shown that the balance between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a major angiogenic stimulator, and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a potent angiogenic inhibitor, is critical for the regulation of vascular permeability and angiogenesis. However, the regulation of the balance is largely unclear. The present study demonstrated(More)
Serum PEDF levels (mean (S.D.)) were increased in 96 Type 2 diabetic vs. 54 non-diabetic subjects; 5.3 (2.8) vs. 3.2 (2.0)mug/ml, p<0.001. In diabetes, PEDF correlated with BMI, serum creatinine and LDL-cholesterol, but not with other lipids, HbA1c or CRP. PEDF did not differ by drugs, complications, or gender.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is widely implicated in various pathological conditions such as diabetes. Previously, we reported that enhanced ER stress contributes to inflammation and vascular damage in diabetic and ischemia-induced retinopathy. However, the exact role of the signaling pathways activated by ER stress in vascular inflammation remains(More)
Following experimental spinal cord injury (SCI), there is a delayed loss of neurofilament proteins but relatively little is known regarding the status of other cytoskeletal elements. The purpose of the present study was to compare the extent and time course of the MAP2 loss with that of neurofilament proteins, and to examine tau protein levels and(More)