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PURPOSE To compare the efficacy and safety of ranibizumab and bevacizumab intravitreal injections to treat neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). DESIGN Multicenter, noninferiority factorial trial with equal allocation to groups. The noninferiority limit was 3.5 letters. This trial is registered (ISRCTN92166560). PARTICIPANTS People >50(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Inflammatory Bowel Disease (which includes Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis), is a chronic condition characterised by substantial morbidity. Inflammatory Bowel Disease patients are considered expensive to manage, hence accurate estimates of care costs are crucial to help healthcare providers plan clinical management. The aim of(More)
AIM Genomic interventions could enable improved disease stratification and individually tailored therapies. However, they have had a limited impact on clinical practice to date due to a lack of evidence, particularly economic evidence. This is partly because health economists are yet to reach consensus on whether existing methods are sufficient to evaluate(More)
BACKGROUND Randomised controlled trials are the most effective way to differentiate between the effects of competing interventions. However, head-to-head studies are unlikely to have been conducted for all competing interventions. AIM Evaluation of different methodologies used to indirectly compare interventions based on meta analyses of randomised(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of severe and complex obesity is increasing worldwide and surgery may offer an effective and lasting treatment. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery are the two main surgical procedures performed. DESIGN This open parallel-group randomised controlled trial will compare the effectiveness,(More)
BACKGROUND Early patient referral correlates with improved patient survival on dialysis. We examine whether early referral and a planned first dialysis affect quality of life (QoL). METHODS All patients commencing dialysis in nine centres in seven European countries between 1 July 1998 and 31 October 1999 were recruited. DEFINITIONS early(More)
Aims To explore the cost-effectiveness of alternative methods of screening family members for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common monogenic cardiac disorder and the most frequent cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young people. Methods and results Economic decision model comparing cascade screening by genetic, as opposed to clinical(More)
Genetic testing in health care can provide information to help with disease prediction, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Assessing the clinical utility of genetic testing requires a process to value and weight different outcomes. This article discusses the relative merits of different economic measures and methods to inform recommendations relative to(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the effectiveness of clomifene citrate and unstimulated intrauterine insemination with expectant management for the treatment of unexplained infertility. DESIGN Three arm parallel group, pragmatic randomised controlled trial. SETTING Four teaching hospitals and a district general hospital in Scotland. PARTICIPANTS Couples with(More)
International comparisons of health care systems and services have created increased interest in the comparability of cost results. This study compared top-down and bottom-up approaches to collecting unit cost data across centres in the context of examining the cost-effectiveness of dialysis therapy across Europe. The study tested whether health care(More)