Sarah Underwood

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Clostridium difficile is responsible for significant mortality and morbidity in the hospitalized elderly. C. difficile spores are infectious and are a major factor contributing to nosocomial transmission. The Spo0A response regulator is the master regulator for sporulation initiation and can influence many other cellular processes. Using the ClosTron gene(More)
The orphan G protein-coupled receptor 78 (GPR78) gene lies within a region of chromosome 4p where we have previously shown linkage to bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) in a large Scottish family. GPR78 was screened for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a linkage disequilibrium map was constructed. Six tagging SNPs were selected and tested for(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of hospital cleaning agents and germicides on the survival of epidemic Clostridium difficile strains. METHODS We compared the activity of and effects of exposure to 5 cleaning agents and/or germicides (3 containing chlorine, 1 containing only detergent, and 1 containing hydrogen peroxide) on vegetative and spore forms of(More)
The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro fertilizing capacity of bull sperm derived from fresh or frozen samples and subjected to sex sorting and re-cryopreservation. Four sperm types were assessed for their ability to fertilize and sustain early embryo development in vitro. Semen from three Bos taurus bulls of different breeds (Jersey,(More)
The objective was to determine the in vitro characteristics of frozen-thawed dairy bull sperm after sex-sorting and refreezing and thawing (0, 2, and 4h post-thaw; 37 degrees C) or post-sort incubation at 15 or 37 degrees C for 30 and 24h, respectively. These sperm were compared with nonsorted frozen-thawed sperm (control) and with nonsorted sperm(More)
Sex ratio theory offers excellent opportunities to examine the extent to which individuals adaptively adjust their behavior in response to local conditions. Hamilton's theory of local mate competition, which predicts female-biased sex ratios in structured populations, has been extended in numerous directions to predict individual behavior in response to(More)
BACKGROUND Bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) are common conditions. Their causes are unknown, but they include a substantial genetic component. Previously, we described significant linkage of BPAD to a chromosome 4p locus within a large pedigree (F22). Others subsequently have found evidence for linkage of BPAD and SCZ to this(More)
Flow cytometric sorting for the preselection of sex has progressed considerably in the 20 years since its inception. This technique has allowed the production of pre-sexed offspring in a multitude of species and become a commercial success in cattle around the world. However, due to the stress inherent to the sex-sorting process, sex-sorted spermatozoa are(More)
Telomere length (TL) is increasingly being used as a biomarker in epidemiological, biomedical and ecological studies. A wide range of DNA extraction techniques have been used in telomere experiments and recent quantitative PCR (qPCR) based studies suggest that the choice of DNA extraction method may influence average relative TL (RTL) measurements. Such(More)
Two field trials were conducted to determine the fertilising capacity of (i) frozen-thawed, sex-sorted re-frozen-thawed (FSF) dairy bull sperm inseminated close to the time of ovulation, (ii) FSF sperm following large dose insemination, and frozen-thawed, sex-sorted (FS) sperm inseminated within 12h after sorting. In Trial 1, 24 heifers in synchronised(More)