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Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of brain development in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) has revealed structural abnormalities, but studies have been limited by the use of cross-sectional designs. Longitudinal scans can provide key insights into trajectories of neurodevelopment within individuals with this common developmental disorder. Here we(More)
Brain imaging studies suggest that cortical thickness decreases during childhood and adolescence, in concert with underlying structural and synaptic changes required for cognitive maturation and regional specialization of function. Abnormalities of this protracted developmental process may provide key insights into the cognitive and behavioral deficits that(More)
It remains unclear if changes of the cerebral cortex occur gradually from childhood to adulthood, or if adolescence marks a differential period of cortical development. In the current study of 90 healthy volunteers aged 5-32years (48 females, 85 right handed) with 180 scans (2 scans for each participant with ~4year gaps), thinning of overall mean thickness(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging of subcortical gray matter structures, which mediate behavior, cognition and the pathophysiology of several diseases, is crucial for establishing typical maturation patterns across the human lifespan. This single site study examines T1-weighted MPRAGE images of 3 healthy cohorts: (i) a cross-sectional cohort of 406 subjects aged(More)
Inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility are two key executive functions that develop in childhood and adolescence, increasing one's capacity to respond dynamically to changing external demands and refrain from impulsive behaviors. These gains evolve in concert with significant brain development. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have identified(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals gestationally exposed to alcohol experience a multitude of sociobehavioral impairments, including deficits in adaptive behaviors such as social skills. METHODS The goal of this report is to critically review research on social skills deficits in individuals with prenatal alcohol exposure, including individuals with and without fetal(More)
Head circumference is used together with other measures as a proxy for central nervous system damage in the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, yet the relationship between head circumference and brain volume has not been investigated in this population. The objective of this study is to characterize the relationship between head circumference,(More)
Response inhibition is the ability to suppress irrelevant impulses to enable goal-directed behavior. The underlying neural mechanisms of inhibition deficits are not clearly understood, but may be related to white matter connectivity, which can be assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship(More)
Individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) have difficulties with cognitive-based executive function (EF) tasks. The goal of the present study was to determine if children with FASD have impairments on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), which measures affective EF (i.e., decision-making and risk-taking). Individuals with FASD (n = 31) and healthy(More)