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RATIONALE Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are heterogeneous with respect to inflammation and etiology. OBJECTIVES Investigate biomarker expression in COPD exacerbations to identify biologic clusters and determine biomarkers that recognize clinical COPD exacerbation phenotypes, namely those associated with bacteria, viruses,(More)
RATIONALE Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and responses to treatment are heterogeneous. OBJECTIVES Investigate the usefulness of blood eosinophils to direct corticosteroid therapy during exacerbations. METHODS Subjects with COPD exacerbations were entered into a randomized biomarker-directed double-blind corticosteroid(More)
Repeated infestations of the rabbit with adultRhipicephalus zambeziensis ticks resulted in a tenfold reduction in engorgement weight of adult ticks and a significant decline in engorgement weight of nymphs. There was no evidence of cross-resistance against the South African bont tick,Amblyomma hebraeum. Immunization of rabbits with crude extracts of(More)
Background. Asthma and obesity are common; however the impact of obesity upon asthma remains uncertain. Objectives. To assess relationships between obesity and fat mass with airway inflammation, lung function, and disease control in patients with refractory asthma. Methods. 151 refractory asthma patients were characterised for measures of airway(More)
Patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are susceptible to exacerbations, often caused by microbial pathogens. We hypothesised that intracellular Toll-like receptor (TLR) function in blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from these subjects would be impaired and that this impairment is related to exacerbation frequency. PBMCs(More)
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