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Cells keep their energy balance and avoid oxidative stress by regulating mitochondrial movement, distribution, and clearance. We report here that two Parkinson's disease proteins, the Ser/Thr kinase PINK1 and ubiquitin ligase Parkin, participate in this regulation by arresting mitochondrial movement. PINK1 phosphorylates Miro, a component of the primary(More)
Myosin VI is a molecular motor involved in intracellular vesicle and organelle transport. To carry out its cellular functions myosin VI moves toward the pointed end of actin, backward in relation to all other characterized myosins. Myosin V, a motor that moves toward the barbed end of actin, is processive, undergoing multiple catalytic cycles and mechanical(More)
Kinesin motor proteins execute a variety of intracellular microtubule-based transport functions [1]. Kinesin motor domains contain a catalytic core, which is conserved throughout the kinesin superfamily, followed by a neck region, which is conserved within subfamilies and has been implicated in controlling the direction of motion along a microtubule [2](More)
Environmental pollution by phosphorus from animal waste is a major problem in agriculture because simple-stomached animals, such as swine, poultry, and fish, cannot digest phosphorus (as phytate) present in plant feeds. To alleviate this problem, a phytase from Aspergillus niger PhyA is widely used as a feed additive to hydrolyze phytate-phosphorus.(More)
Intracellular transport is typically bidirectional, consisting of a series of back and forth movements. Kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic dynein require each other for bidirectional transport of intracellular cargo along microtubules; i.e., inhibition or depletion of kinesin-1 abolishes dynein-driven cargo transport and vice versa. Using Drosophila melanogaster S2(More)
The kinesin-1 molecular motor contains an ATP-dependent microtubule-binding site in its N-terminal head domain and an ATP-independent microtubule-binding site in its C-terminal tail domain. Here we demonstrate that a kinesin-1 tail fragment associates with microtubules with submicromolar affinity. Binding is largely electrostatic in nature, and is(More)
Kinesin motor proteins transport a wide variety of molecular cargoes in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Kinesin motor domains, which hydrolyze ATP to produce a directed mechanical force along a microtubule, are well conserved throughout the entire superfamily. Outside of the motor domains, kinesin sequences diverge along with their transport(More)
Miro is a highly conserved calcium-binding GTPase at the regulatory nexus of mitochondrial transport and autophagy. Here we present crystal structures comprising the tandem EF hand and carboxy terminal GTPase (cGTPase) domains of Drosophila Miro. The structures reveal two previously unidentified 'hidden' EF hands, each paired with a canonical EF hand. Each(More)
Crystal structures of the molecular motor kinesin show conformational variability in a structural element called the neck linker. Conformational change in the neck linker, initiated by ATP exchange, is thought to drive the movement of kinesin along the microtubule track. We use site-specific EPR measurements to show that when microtubules are absent, the(More)
Kinesin-1 is a molecular motor protein that transports cargo along microtubules. Inside cells, the vast majority of kinesin-1 is regulated to conserve ATP and to ensure its proper intracellular distribution and coordination with other molecular motors. Regulated kinesin-1 folds in half at a hinge in its coiled-coil stalk. Interactions between coiled-coil(More)