Sarah Rafi Khan

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Mucosal defense is provided by a number of host factors countering the specific virulence factors of the many microorganisms infecting the mucous membranes. Secretory IgA antibodies presumably play an important role. Increase of the sIgA antibodies may most advantageously be attained by parenteral immunization, following mucosal priming. This was(More)
Rectal cultures from Swedish and Pakistani hospital-delivered newborn infants were analysed regarding the early acquisition of enterobacteria. Swedish infants were delivered vaginally, Pakistani infants were delivered either vaginally or by caesarean section. The Swedish infants were all breast-fed, whereas breastfeeding was incomplete and often started(More)
The effect of poliovirus vaccination on mucosal immunity was studied in lactating women because secretory IgA antibodies to poliovirus in milk may reflect intestinal immunity. Swedish mothers lacked significant titers of secretory IgA antibodies in their milk before vaccination. Subcutaneous vaccination with killed poliovirus vaccine resulted in low but(More)
Protection against neonatal sepsis by breast feeding was investigated in a developing community. A case-control study was carried out with 42 cases from a hospital and 270 controls, matched for age and socioeconomic conditions from the community. Exclusive breast feeding was extremely rare, most babies being partially breast fed and a few being given(More)
Intestinal permeability was assessed with different-sized polyethylene glycols (PEG 400 and PEG 1,000) in small children with acute diarrhea. All children with acute diarrhea absorbed and excreted less PEG of all molecular sizes into the urine when compared with healthy control children (p less than 0.001). Children with acute rotavirus infection excreted(More)
Mortality during the first two years of life among 1476 Pakistani infants born between September 1984 and March 1987 is described according to age, causes of death, area of living, season of the year and sex. The mortality rate (deaths under two years/1000 live births) projected over the whole population of Pakistan was 127 and under one year 114. During(More)
The aim of the present investigation was to study the frequency of Shigella spp. in patients with bloody diarrhea in Pakistan and the susceptibility of isolated Shigella to three antibiotics: ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and nalidixic acid. In addition, the frequency of Campylobacter and Salmonella was also determined. Stool samples (n = 152) were collected(More)
The feeding practices of children (n = 1476) from birth to 24 months, as determined in a longitudinal study, in Lahore, Pakistan, are presented. Four socioeconomic groups at various levels of urbanization were included; a village, periurban slum, urban slum and an upper middle class. Initiation of breastfeeding was delayed in all the neonates. Sixty-five(More)
The causative agents of acute diarrhoea were investigated in children under the age of five years from 1985-1991 in three socio-economically different areas in Lahore, Pakistan. The aim was to determine the frequencies of the most common enteropathogens in faeces. The total isolation rate was 73.4%; two thirds (53.5%) were of bacterial and one third (19.9%)(More)
In Pakistan there are a number of acute problems related to maternal and infant health in the perinatal period. There is also lack of reliable data needed for the formulation of action strategies. To provide a database 1490 women have been followed from the 5th month of pregnancy in four different areas at various levels of urbanization and socio-economic(More)