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Discounting future outcomes as a function of their deferred availability underlies much of human decision making. Discounting, or preference for immediate over delayed rewards of larger value, is often associated with impulsivity and is a risk factor for addictive disorders such as pathological gambling, cigarette smoking, and drug and alcohol abuse. The(More)
BACKGROUND We evaluated the magnitude of the reported associations between amygdala activation and the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and the likely effect size of this relationship. METHODS We used meta-analytic techniques to combine data from existing published and unpublished studies. We also tested for possible(More)
Individual differences in traits such as impulsivity involve high reward sensitivity and are associated with risk for substance use disorders. The ventral striatum (VS) has been widely implicated in reward processing, and individual differences in its function are linked to these disorders. Dopamine (DA) plays a critical role in reward processing and is a(More)
OBJECTIVE Alterations in reward-related brain function and phenomenological aspects of positive affect are increasingly examined in the development of major depressive disorder. The authors tested differences in reward-related brain function in healthy and depressed adolescents, and the authors examined direct links between reward-related brain function and(More)
The objective of the current study was to analyze the neural correlates of behavioral arousal and inhibitory control as they relate to individual differences in impulsivity via well-established functional MRI amygdala reactivity and prefrontal inhibitory control paradigms in healthy adult subjects. Impulsivity correlated positively with activity of the(More)
Prefrontal cortex is a target for glucocorticoids, shows neurochemical changes in response to stress and mediates many of the behaviors that are altered by chronic corticosterone administration. Three weeks of either daily corticosterone injections or 3 h daily restraint stress result in dendritic changes in pyramidal neurons in medial prefrontal cortex.(More)
Low socioeconomic status (SES) increases the risk for developing psychiatric and chronic medical disorders. A stress-related pathway by which low SES may affect mental and physical health is through the perception of holding a low social standing, termed low subjective social status. This proposal implicates overlapping brain regions mediating stress(More)
Recent studies have indicated that a newly identified second isoform of the tryptophan hydroxylase gene (TPH2) is preferentially involved in the rate-limiting synthesis of neuronal serotonin. Genetic variation in the human TPH2 gene (hTPH2) has been associated with altered in vitro enzyme activity as well as increased risk for mood disorders. Here, we(More)
Because of the unique ability it provides to investigate information processing at the level of neural systems, functional neuroimaging is a powerful tool to explore the relationship between genes, brain, and behavior. Recently, functional neuroimaging has provided dramatic illustrations of how a promoter polymorphism in the human serotonin transporter(More)