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Although many amphibian populations around the world are declining at alarming rates, the cause of most declines remains unknown. Environmental contamination is one of several factors implicated in declines and may have particularly important effects on sensitive developmental stages. Despite the severe effects of maternal transfer of contaminants on early(More)
Despite widespread interest in the evolution of social intelligence, little is known about how wild animals acquire and store information about social companions or whether individuals possessing enhanced social knowledge derive biological fitness benefits. Using playback experiments on African elephants (Loxodonta africana), we demonstrated that the(More)
The behavior of vascular EC is greatly altered in sites of pathological angiogenesis, such as a developing tumor or atherosclerotic plaque. Until recently it was thought that this was largely due to abnormal chemical signaling, i.e., endothelial cell chemo transduction, at these sites. However, we now demonstrate that the shear stress intensity encountered(More)
BACKGROUND Reverse engineering in systems biology entails inference of gene regulatory networks from observational data. This data typically include gene expression measurements of wild type and mutant cells in response to a given stimulus. It has been shown that when more than one type of experiment is used in the network inference process the accuracy is(More)
Bergmann's rule states that, among conspecific populations, individuals are larger in cooler than in warmer environments as a consequence of selection related to heat conservation. Many of the most comprehensive assessments of Bergmann's rule to date have examined clinal patterns in body size among species assemblages. Our study is a more direct test of(More)
Stressors are commonly encountered by organisms and often prove to be energetically costly. Certain stressors can simultaneously affect multiple components of an animal's energy budget and can either exacerbate energetic costs to the individual or offset one another. Here we used a commonly encountered stressor, the pesticide carbaryl, to examine the(More)
Infectious diseases are increasingly recognised to be a major threat to biodiversity. Disease management tools such as control of animal movements and vaccination can be used to mitigate the impact and spread of diseases in targeted species. They can reduce the risk of epidemics and in turn the risks of population decline and extinction. However, all(More)
1. While it is generally accepted that the survival of offspring within families may be correlated, the extent of correlation has been largely untested. Furthermore, the impact of such correlation on the estimated variance in females' reproductive success has rarely been quantified. 2. Here we use an exceptional data set from a long-term study of(More)
Predator-prey interactions are fundamental in the evolution and structure of ecological communities. Our understanding, however, of the strategies used in pursuit and evasion remains limited. Here, we report on the hunting dynamics of the world's fastest land animal, the cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus. Using miniaturized data loggers, we recorded fine-scale(More)
Parasitic leeches and trypanosomes release chemical signals into their hosts to evade immuno-detection, but it is unknown whether these compounds manipulate host behavior or endocrine physiology. We determined whether parasitic infections with leeches and/or trypanosomes affected the immune and stress response of an imperiled giant species of amphibian, the(More)