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Since the introduction of penicillin, beta-lactam antibiotics have been the antimicrobial agents of choice. Unfortunately, the efficacy of these life-saving antibiotics is significantly threatened by bacterial beta-lactamases. beta-Lactamases are now responsible for resistance to penicillins, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, monobactams, and carbapenems.(More)
As the incidence of Gram-negative bacterial infections for which few effective treatments remain increases, so does the contribution of drug-hydrolyzing β-lactamase enzymes to this serious clinical problem. This review highlights recent advances in β-lactamase inhibitors and focuses on agents with novel mechanisms of action against a wide range of enzymes.(More)
The panoply of resistance mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa makes resistance suppression difficult. Defining optimal regimens is critical. Cefepime is a cephalosporin whose 3' side chain provides some stability against AmpC β-lactamases. We examined the activity of cefepime against P. aeruginosa wild-type strain PAO1 and its isogenic AmpC stably(More)
Inhibitor resistant (IR) class A β-lactamases pose a significant threat to many current antibiotic combinations. The K234R substitution in the SHV β-lactamase, from Klebsiella pneumoniae , results in resistance to ampicillin/clavulanate. After site-saturation mutagenesis of Lys-234 in SHV, microbiological and biochemical characterization of the resulting(More)
Boronic acid transition state inhibitors (BATSIs) are potent class A and C β-lactamase inactivators and are of particular interest due to their reversible nature mimicking the transition state. Here, we present structural and kinetic data describing the inhibition of the SHV-1 β-lactamase, a clinically important enzyme found in Klebsiella pneumoniae, by(More)
The rise of inhibitor-resistant and other β-lactamase variants is generating an interest in developing new β-lactamase inhibitors to complement currently available antibiotics. To gain insight into the chemistry of inhibitor recognition, we determined the crystal structure of the inhibitor preacylation complex of sulbactam, a clinical β-lactamase inhibitor,(More)
The rising prevalence of resistance to first-line antimicrobial agents in Escherichia coli, which has paralleled the emergence of E. coli sequence type ST131, has created a need for alternative oral options for use in treating outpatients with infections such as cystitis and chronic prostatitis. Accordingly, we determined susceptibility to six alternative(More)
Inhibitor-resistant class A beta-lactamases of the TEM and SHV families that arise by single amino acid substitutions are a significant threat to the efficacy of beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations. To better understand the basis of the inhibitor-resistant phenotype in SHV, we performed mutagenesis to examine the role of a second-shell(More)
The oxidative stress response regulator OxyR was assessed as both a urinary and extra-urinary virulence factor in Escherichia coli strain UCB34 (O17:K+:H18), a representative of the emergent Clonal Group A (CGA). Compared to UCB34, the isogenic oxyR mutant exhibited increased H2O2 sensitivity, indistinguishable in vitro growth, and attenuated virulence in(More)
The instability of DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles (Au-DNA conjugates) upon exposure to high temperatures is characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis and ion-exchange chromatography. Above 70 degrees C, aqueous Au-DNA conjugates decompose within hours due to both desorption of thiol-terminated DNA from the gold nanoparticle(More)